East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh <p>East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (EAJSSH) is the official journal of the College of Social Sciences and Humanities at Haramaya University. Its purpose is to serve as a forum for intellectual exchange on a wide range of the social, historical, environmental, and political issues that affect humans in multiple ways and are in turn affected by dynamics and processes of humans’ interventions. Contributions are thus welcome from the diverse and interrelating fields of social sciences and humanities such as Sociology, Social Work, Social Anthropology, History, Political Sciences, Human Geography, Gender and Development Studies, Social Psychology, Peace and Development/Conflict Studies, Linguistics, Literature and Folklore, Cultural Studies, Law, Media and Communication Studies, Tourism and Development, Urban Planning (its social aspects), and Education. </p> The East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (EAJSSH) is published by Haramaya University. en-US East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2521-2192 Community Capitals and Community Resilience in Rural Oromia, Ethiopia: The Case of East Hararghe https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh/article/view/439 <p>Community resilience, i.e., the ability of a community to utilize available resources to respond to, withstand, and recover from adverse situations, highly depends on the condition of community capitals. This paper examines the state of community capitals, considering the case of the rural community in East Hararghe. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and observations. The findings show that the stocks of the various capitals of the community are too low to contribute to moderate resilience. The negative interplay of the capitals of the community has led to a spiralling-down effect on each capital and exposed the community to severe vulnerability in the face of frequent shocks and disturbances. To reverse this condition and improve the resilience of the community, the results indicate the importance of first dealing with the long-established experiences of the community which are locking up community capitals and hence blocking community resilience; before attempting any other intervention. “Training for Transformation” is, therefore, suggested to be given to the community to enable it to reflect critically on its current situation and the cognitive and cultural impediments to change. This is expected to assist the community to integrate outside interventions productively and to increase its capabilities in using its own resources in its local environment.</p> <p>Keywords: Community Capitals; Farmers; Resilience; Rural; Smallholders; Vulnerability</p> Gutema Imana Markus Schermer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh 2016-12-13 2016-12-13 1 2 133 154 Inequality of Opportunities for Children in Ethiopia and Contributors for Inequality https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh/article/view/440 <p>The purpose of this paper was to measure inequality of opportunities for children in Ethiopia. The study used secondary data from Living Standard Measurement Survey of Ethiopia, 2015. A total of 7207 sample children were considered. Human opportunity index was used to measure inequalities of opportunities for children. Dissimilarity index was used to measure inequality of opportunities. Opportunities were peroxied by access to basic services such as primary education, safe drinking water, health and nutrition. The dissimilarity index showed high inequality with value of 20.8, 12.9 and 8.4% for access to safe drinking water, health service and minimum nutrition opportunities, respectively. The coverage rates of access to opportunities were also less than other regions with respective values of 64.1, 29.8 and 22.9% for primary education, safe drinking water and health services. The human opportunity indices were also 61.5, 23.6 and 20.0% for these opportunities, respectively. Access to safe drinking water and health services were the lowest available opportunities as well as the highest inequitably distributed among children in Somali and Afar regional sates than other regions. This indicates that these regions allocate low resources to increase average access rate of these opportunities. Moreover, the existing services are distributed unfairly. These urge the government to create fair level playing field for children across the country. Increasing allocation of resources to improve the coverage rate of safe drinking water, health and education services in pastoral areas reduces in equality of opportunities among the regions.</p> <p>Keywords: Dissimilarity Index; Human Opportunity Index; Inequality; Opportunity</p> Kedir Jemal Belaineh Legesse Jema Haji Mengistu Ketema ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh 2016-12-13 2016-12-13 1 2 155 172 Farmers’ Perceptions of Land Productivity and Degradation, and Major Practices of Land Management in Habru Woreda, North Wollo Zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh/article/view/441 <p>This study assesses farmers' perceptions of farmland productivity and land degradation, and land management practices in Habru woreda, north Wollo zone, Amhara national regional state, northern Ethiopia. The study employed survey research design. Data were gathered from 215 randomly selected sample respondents, 12 key informant interviewees, and 8 focus group discussion participants from 4 purposively selected representative kebeles based on agroecology and land degradation. Descriptive analysis was employed for the quantitative data using SPSS software version 17. Accordingly, about 36% and 34% of sample respondents perceived their farmlands' productivity as very good and good, respectively. Land degradation was perceived by about 62.3% of sample respondents as severe and by 32.1% of them as moderate. Farmers used traditional and introduced management practices namely check dams, stone/soil bunds, application of manure, tree planting, contour ploughing and fallowing either per se or in combinations. Recently, Participatory Safety Net Program was implemented being derived by self-motivation and by incentives of the program as reported by 65.1% of 32.1% of sample respondents in the study area, respectively. Despite these endeavours, rainfall variability, land degradation, weeds and pests, delay in agricultural inputs, and traditional farming practices are reported as among major challenges of agricultural production. Therefore, it calls for demand driven interventions not only to avert short term challenges encountered by the farming community but also towards sustainable land management, poverty reduction, food security and livelihood development.</p> <p>Keywords: Farmers' Perceptions; Habru Woreda; Land Degradation; Land Management Practices; Land Productivity</p> Fentabil Yimer Solomon Tekalign R. U. Reddy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh 2016-12-13 2016-12-13 1 2 173 186 A Constructivist Approach to Teaching and Learning: Rhetoric versus Reality in the Context of Ethiopian Secondary Schools https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh/article/view/442 <p>In this study, an attempt was made to examine the alignment of the teaching context in secondary schools in Ethiopia with a constructivist approach as emphasized in the education policy of the country. Constructivism underlies innovative approaches such as active learning, problem solving, and cooperative learning, and is often associated with quality learning outcomes. Nevertheless, it is believed that such an approach is less likely to lead to intended outcomes unless the teaching context is conducive. In light of this, by engaging teachers in a critical reflection, the alignment of their views and teaching context with a constructivist approach was examined. Data were collected from a class of 25 secondary school teachers. The results revealed that teachers have positive views about a constructivist approach to teaching and its introduction to the education system in Ethiopia. However, it is found that its realization in practice is more rhetoric than reality as the existing teaching practices are far behind the principles of constructivism. The traditional approach to teaching in which the teacher lectures and students passively listen is an established culture of teaching in schools and is unlikely to change as intended due to the overwhelmingly complex impediments to change in the education system. The students‟ poor background, top-down policies and curricula, poor administrative and physical infrastructure are among the impediments that are holding back its implementation. Therefore, a supportive environment that encourages teachers to adopt the intended approach is needed as mere policy changes do not guarantee improvements at grassroots level.</p> <p>Keywords: A constructivist Approach; Critical Reflection; Reality; Rhetoric; Teaching Context</p> Adinew Tadesse Degago ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh 2016-12-13 2016-12-13 1 2 187 200 Family Structure and Academic Achievement Motivation of Adolescent Students in Haramaya Senior Secondary and Preparatory School, East Hararghe, Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh/article/view/443 <p>This study examined academic achievement motivation (AAM) and associated personal (age, grade, sex) and familial structural factors (intact, single, and step family background) among a sample 201 (94 males and 107 females) adolescent students in one of the peri-urban schools of east Hararghe zone (Haramaya). Data were collected through an inventory containing twenty four items being adapted from previous versions. Data were analyzed using a blend of descriptive and inferential statistical methods that were successively conducted to examining the status of AAM (one-sample t-test), ANOVA, regression analysis), and the pair-wise comparison (Scheffe test) of the three categories of family structures. Findings indicated that adolescent students had a reasonably acceptable level of AAM that was remarkably influenced by family structure compared to other personal factors. Although sex couldn‟t make significant main effects, its interaction with family structure yielded significant effect on AAM in such a way that boys from intact family were found to stand in sharp contrast mainly to girls from step family background. Attempts were made to explain findings within the existing ecological and socio-cultural profile of the study area. Recommendations were also suggested to help properly addressing the gaps noted in this research.</p> <p>Keywords: Academic Achievement Motivation; Adolescent Students; Family Structure; Haramaya; Hararghe</p> Belay Tefera Galata Sitota ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh 2016-12-13 2016-12-13 1 2 201 220 Academic Motivation, Attitude and Achievement in Science Education in Southern Oromia, Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh/article/view/444 <p>Non-cognitive factors play significant roles in academic achievement of science education. The purpose of the study entitled as academic motivation, attitude and science education achievement was to examine relationship between students’ academic motivation, attitude and achievement on science education and investigate predictive power of motivation on science achievement. The study used correlational research design. The motivated strategy for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) and attitude scales were used to gather data from participants (78 males, 22 females). Achievement data collected on biology, physics, and chemistry. Analysis of the data has indicated that academic motivation and attitude correlate significantly with each other but not with science achievement except with task value (TVA) (r = 0.24, r2 = 5.76%, p &lt;.05, df = n1 +n2 -2= 98). Regression analysis illustrates that 9% of science achievement accounted for by task value (TVA). Overall, there are low to moderate relationship between motivation and science achievement. It recommends giving high task value to science education, developing science self-efficacy, and not to develop amotivation. The study has offered the implication that science education policy and strategy designers, teachers and parents should encourage natural science students.</p> <p>Keywords: Academic Motivation; Achievement; Attitude; Science Education</p> Mengistu Debele ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejsh 2016-12-13 2016-12-13 1 2 221 229