East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2021-04-07T00:16:08-04:00 Birhanu Midekso Open Journal Systems <p>East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (EAJSSH) is the official journal of the College of Social Sciences and Humanities at Haramaya University. Its purpose is to serve as a forum for intellectual exchange on a wide range of the social, historical, environmental, and political issues that affect humans in multiple ways and are in turn affected by dynamics and processes of humans’ interventions. Contributions are thus welcome from the diverse and interrelating fields of social sciences and humanities such as Sociology, Social Work, Social Anthropology, History, Political Sciences, Human Geography, Gender and Development Studies, Social Psychology, Peace and Development/Conflict Studies, Linguistics, Literature and Folklore, Cultural Studies, Law, Media and Communication Studies, Tourism and Development, Urban Planning (its social aspects), and Education.</p> The Need for Establishing Oromo National Civic Institutions: The Cases of Global Gumii Oromia and Oromia Global Forum 2020-12-19T23:47:05-05:00 Asafa Jalata <p>The lack of institutional or organizational capacity exposes a society to abuse, oppression, and exploitation or even extermination by a better-organized entity or society. Today, the Oromo is one of such societies. The precolonial institutions of the Oromo people were dismantled by Ethiopian colonialism and its political structures, which eroded their norms and democratic traditions. Consequently, there have been political fragmentation and uneven development of Oromo nationalism (national <em>Oromummaa</em>) that undermined the development of Oromo national institutional or organizational capacity. Empowering the Oromo people to safeguard the gains achieved so far through huge sacrifice and to continue the national struggle for human dignity and freedom require national organizational capacity building urgently. The building of independent and strong national civic institutions puts the Oromo cultural and political gains on firmer grounds and facilitates the struggle for sovereignty and egalitarian democracy. The efforts to achieve Oromia national self-determination and the building of a democratic society require the restoration of the best elements of <em>gadaa/siiqqee </em>(Oromo democratic) principles and the restoration and sharpening of the indigenous Oromo knowledge. The difficult journey toward genuine democracy necessitates also the existence of strong national political organizations with sophisticated knowledge of democratic principles. Furthermore, the development of strong Oromo social movements is necessary to support such national political organizations to defeat the political and ideological hegemony of the Ethiopian colonial state. The paper uses the examples of Global <em>Gumii </em>Oromia (GGO) and Oromia Global Forum (OGF), which are Oromo national civic organizations formed by Oromo intellectuals, professionals, and Oromo from all walks of life residing in North America, Australia, and Europe, to empower Oromo society in order to solve its cultural, political, economic, and social problems. The GGO and OGF were formed to experiment with the strategy of building Oromia national civic institutions, which were modelled after the <em>Gumii Gayyoo </em>of the Borana Oromo. In this paper, I combine a structural approach with a social constructionist model of human agency. Specifically, I employ interdisciplinary, multidimensional, and critical approaches to examine the dynamic interplay among Oromo social structures, human agency, and social/national movements.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Gadaa/siiqqee; Global Gumii </em>Oromia; Knowledge; Organizations; Oromia Global Forum; Oromo institutions; <em>Qeerroo/Qarree</em></p> 2020-12-19T23:44:59-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of Somali Nationalism on the Amhara-Somali Ethnic Interaction in Jigjiga Town and its Surroundings (1940s – 1990s) 2021-03-31T01:07:47-04:00 Zerihun Girma Gutema Imana <p>The Amhara settled in Jigjiga and its surroundings following Emperor Minîlik’s imperial expansion to Ogaden in the 1880s. This resulted in the creation of garrisons and settlements in Ogaden. The Amhara were governors, soldiers and their followers who settled in the Somali land during the reigns of Emperor Minîlik and Emperor Haile Sillassie. The aim of this paper is to discuss the impact of Somali nationalism on the Amhara-Somali ethnic interaction in Jigjiga town and its surroundings from 1940s to 1990s. The study solely relied on qualitative data that were gathered through in-depth interviews and desk reviews. The gathered data were carefully analyzed and interpreted after they were crosschecked and classified into themes. The findings of the study indicate that there had been historical contradictions and resultant frequent violent and non-violent conflicts between the Amhara settlers (the political majority) and the Somali (the host community who were the political minority). The Somali identified the Amhara as representing alien rule that was imposed on them just to exploit and oppress them, while the Amhara developed contempt for the native Somali, being obsessed by the stiff resistances they posed against them and the imperial rule. The contradiction and dissension between the two groups had been in the making since the arrival of Minîlik’s conquering army in the Somali area but organized violent skirmishes and conventional wars began to take place since the 1940s due to the internal and external political factors; especially the Somali nationalism.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Amhara; Conflicts; Nationalism; Relations; Somali</p> 2020-12-19T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring Public Relations Practitioners’ Actual Practice: Jimma Zonal Government Offices in Focus 2021-03-31T00:26:01-04:00 Demelash Mengistu Hamza Hasen <p>This study aimed at describing public relations practitioners’ actual (existing) practice in terms of roles and models, in Jimma zonal sector offices. The study involved both quantitative and qualitative methods using semi-structured questionnaire, in-depth interview and document analysis as data collection tools. Key informants were selected using purposive sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the quantitative data and thematic analyses were employed for qualitative data analysis. The result of the study shows that the contribution of public relation (PR) practitioners in terms of managerial tasks in sector offices was low and they were busy doing technical tasks and playing technician roles. The study also found out that publicity, public information and two-way asymmetrical models were highly practiced and employed. The overall practice of PR practitioners was not effective and did not reach the objectives according to the stated goal in the analyzed document. The result in this regard also revealed that the practice was not receiving due consideration from zonal higher officials and even it was considered to be valueless in their eyes. The public’s interest was not the primary consideration of zonal officials’ PR activities as most of them had political affiliations. It is, therefore, recommended that PR practitioners and the organizations/ offices/institutes could be professionally and structurally organized; practitioners in particular might get involved in strategic planning and decision making to make the activities of PR more effective.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: PR models; PR practitioners; PR roles; Public relations</p> 2020-12-19T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Themes of Subsistence Losing Anxieties among the Arsi Area Peasant Folk Literature 2021-04-06T15:56:43-04:00 Yeshaw Tesema Yideg Yosef Beco Dubi <p>This paper examined the role of folk literature in portraying peasant anxieties relating to subsistence life. By applying a qualitative method, a purposive sampling technique was used, in which twenty-eight genres were selected for intensive analysis. The data were collected from local farmers of Arsi, around Robe areas, through note taking, tape and video recording techniques. The materials were organized and analyzed following stocktaking and sample analysis methodology. It becomes the central theme nearly in all tales, songs, myths, etc that the folk literature depicts subsistence insecurity. The case of recurrence is discussed considering aesthetics, socio- and psycho-economic perspectives. Aesthetics-related perspective refers to literary color and suggestiveness. This, in turn, has enabled the themes of anxieties persist, just using literary and performatory allure as their masks. The folk literature also makes use of mythic views to secure its survival. The strong attachments between subsistence and nature have obliged peasants to stay under the supremacy of mythic outlooks. The folk literature preserves these outlooks which assist the preservation and diffusion of the themes of anxieties. Socio-economic realities reinforce, inevitably, peasant folk literature which is characterized by subsistence anxieties. The folk literature, naturally, suits the natural behavior of peasant life. Since folk literature is a code which mediate the interior-self with the exterior material concern, the peasant psycho-economic reality desires the existence of the folk literature.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Folk literature; Losing anxieties; Peasant; Persistence; Subsistence</p> 2020-12-19T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preschool Education for Rural Ethiopia and Its Impact on Early Schooling: Lessons from a Project-based Initiative in North Shewa 2021-04-07T00:16:08-04:00 Ambissa Kenea <p>As efforts are made to expand preschool education to rural parts of Ethiopia, one important challenge is contextual relevance of the program. The present study aimed to examine a project-based initiative at contextualizing preschool education for children in rural Ethiopia in order to sort out its impact on early schooling and to draw lessons from the contextualization approach. Mixed research design with the concurrent triangulation strategy was applied to conduct the study. Three out of the five project Districts were selected considering accessibility via road transport. Proportional sampling was used to take 11 preschool centers from the 62 preschools in the three Districts. Data was collected from tracer study of preschool completers based on school rosters and interview with the children, parents, preschool educators, grade one teachers, school principals and project officers. Analysis of the data applied both statistical tools and themes drawn from reading and re-reading of the data. The result revealed that the particular preschool initiative has adapted the program to the rural community along curriculum, pedagogical approaches, resource use, and engagement of core stakeholders. Through devising local means, it could overcome many of the challenges which are often thought to have limited preschool provision in the rural areas. Results have been documented in terms of improved preschool enrollment, scholastic achievement during early grades, better social/behavioral skills, and reduced grade one dropout rate. Based on that, it is concluded that adaptation of preschool provision based on the community's assets seems a feasible approach for the rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Curriculum contextualization; Early schooling; Preschool education; Rural Ethiopia</p> 2020-12-19T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##