Gendered Effects of Climate Change on Household Food Security: The Case of Some Selected Drought Prone Rural Kebeles of Dire Dawa Administration, Ethiopia
Climate change poses a serious threat to human food security through erratic rainfall patterns, increasing or decreasing temperature, decreasing crop yields and contributing to increased food insecurity. This study investigates whether men or women are more affected by climate induced household food security in rural kebeles of Dire Dawa Administration. The study also examines access and control over productive resources and the factors contributing to the differential effects of climate change on men and women household heads. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to include 150 men and women household heads from four rural kebeles of the Administration. Standardized precipitation index and Gender disparity index on five agriculture domains such as participation in production, asset ownership and access to resource, income control, leadership and time use were used to measure the effects of rainfall intensity and productivity achievement to household food security respectively. Moreover, T-test and gender vulnerability analysis were also used to analyze the data. The results indicate that rainfall scarcity had occurred for nineteen years from the total of thirty years studied. Moreover, the mean empowerment index of women is below the threshold with differing gender division of labor in agriculture and low-calorie intake per day and more vulnerable due to effects of climate change. The findings of this study indicate the importance of enhancing institutional support to realize gender equality and minimize cultural, social, economic and institutional barriers that contribute to the differential effects of climate change on household food security.
Keywords: Climate change, Food insecurity, Food security, Gender, Standardized precipitation index