Temporal Variations and Views of Time as Reflected in Adam Reta’s Amharic Novel, “Afə”

  • Yesehak Abrham
  • Tesfaye Dagnaw
  • Anteneh Awoke
Keywords: Amharic novel; Fiction; Narrative temporality; Temporal variations; Time


This study was intended to investigate the variations of temporalities and the views of time as reflected in Adam’s novel, “Afə” (Mouth). The study used a qualitative approach as a research method. Paul Ricœur’s Time and Narrativehas been used as a theoretical framework. To interpret the experience of time, narrative inquiry was used as a research design. The data were extracted from the text and analyzed following the conceptual tools outlined in the theoretical framework of the study. Since the text is Amharic, extracts were translated into English through communicative and literal translation methods, which are presented after their Amharic equivalent extracts. The analysis showed that different temporal variations ascribed in the novel, “Afə”. Along with the imaginative variations of eternal, mortal, and cyclical time, the analysis has also explored experiences of time that are posited as linear, traversal, external and internal. Such time variations, in turn, provide multiple temporal perspectives for readers. The study also identified different views of time with a sense of transformation, transiency, and cyclical. The novel, “Afə”,dominantly reflected the cyclical aspect of time, which is usually attested as a form of African temporality. Moreover, Adam’s style of narration makes the story oscillate in a cyclical labyrinth of temporality.

Author Biographies

Yesehak Abrham

Ph.D. Candidate in Literature, Bahir Dar University, Department of English

Tesfaye Dagnaw

Bahir Dar University, Department of English, Associate Professor in  Literature

Anteneh Awoke

Bahir Dar University, Department of Ethiopian Languages - Amharic, Associate Professor in Ethiopian Literature

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