Reducing the Effect of Handout Dependent Student Learning on Instructional Time: The Case of Third Year Biology Students at Haramaya University
This action research was conducted to reduce the effect of handout-dependent-learning on instructional time. Descriptive research design was used. In preliminary survey, seven instructors at School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, three duplication staffs and 46 third-year biology students were selected by purposive, systematic random and clustering random techniques, respectively. In-depth interview was used to collect data from the instructors, head of university duplication service and 2 support staffs. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the students. In action research plan, Fundamentals of Biotechnology and Introduction to Immunology and Cytogenetics were selected. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Science Direct and Springer online databases and reference books with brief notes, and detailed notes were selected for implementation of action plan. Observations, feedbacks and tests were used for data collection. Quantitative data were analyzed by measured values, frequencies or percentages. Qualitative data were analyzed by identifying and describing themes or categories came up from the respondents’ responses. The preliminary survey showed that handout duplication took at least three weeks and students had the habit of waiting handout to start reading courses. The implemented online databases and reference books along with brief notes showed the coverage of the selected units within the curricular allocated time. The implementation of detailed notes showed consumption of an additional 2-hour instructional time. The study implied that students should start reading courses using available alternatives to handout rather than waiting for handout in order to reduce overconsumption of instructional time in Haramaya University classrooms context.
Keywords: Detail note; Handout dependency; Instructional time; Postponing; Time wastage