East African Journal of Sciences https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas <p>An International and Multidisciplinary Journal, Published Biannually by the Research and Extension Office, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers and disseminates scientific and technological information to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities; and accepts papers from anywhere else in the world.</p> en-US Authors agree to retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously that allows others to share with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. eajs@haramayajournals.org (Dr. Adem Hiko) mikyashailu@yahoo.com (Milkyas Hailu) Tue, 27 Nov 2018 08:13:07 -0500 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Effect of Altitude, Shade, and Processing Methods on the Quality and Biochemical Composition of Green Coffee Beans in Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/495 <p>Abstract: There are growing demands for high quality coffee in the international market today. This has<br>given coffee producing countries an impetus to increase the quality as well as the quantity of coffee they<br>produce. For improving coffee quality and meet market demands, attention has been given to exploring<br>genetic and environmental factors as well as agronomic and other coffee management practices.<br>However, little information is available in Ethiopia regarding effect of environmental factors such as<br>altitude and coffee management practices such as shading and processing methods on the quality and<br>biochemical composition of green coffee beans. This problem has constrained efforts being made in the<br>country to further exploit the growing demands for quality coffees in the international market.<br>Therefore, a study was conducted during the 2010/11 main cropping season to determine coffee quality<br>attributes as a function of altitude, shade, and processing methods. Red ripe coffee cherries were<br>handpicked from three coffee farms in south-western Ethiopia located at altitudes of 1150, 1545 and<br>1802 meters above sea level, which represented lowland, midland, and highland coffee growing areas,<br>respectively. The coffee cherries were obtained from both shaded and unshaded farms in each of the<br>aforementioned coffee growing areas. The green coffee beans were subjected to both wet and dry coffee<br>processing methods. A total of 36 coded samples (18 washed and 18 unwashed green coffee beans) with<br>a moisture content of about 10.5% were subjected to cup and laboratory tests. Coffee cup test was done<br>according to the procedure of Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) using 36 green coffee bean<br>samples. Contents of caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acids were determined using<br>HPLC/THERMO. Sucrose was determined using GC VARIAN 3800. Univariate analysis of variance<br>and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted using SPSS 16 v2. The results revealed that<br>coffee beans originating from the high altitude had significantly higher first grade and Q1 grade points<br>than coffee beans originating from the low and middle altitudes. Unshaded and unwashed coffee grade<br>was better than the washed and shaded coffee grade. Caffeine content of the beans was affected neither<br>by altitude, shading, nor by the processing method. Shading affected only the content of bean<br>caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (CFQA), which was found to be significantly higher for the unshaded coffee<br>bean samples than the shaded coffee bean samples. Contents of 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-DCQA),<br>feruloylquinic acids (FQA), and total chlorogenic acid (TCGA) were significantly higher for coffee beans<br>originating from the low and middle altitudes than those originating from the high altitude. Similarly,<br>coffee beans that originated from the low altitude had significantly higher contents of 3,4-<br>dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-DCQA), caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (CFQA), and trigonelline than coffee<br>beans that originated from the high altitude. However, coffee beans that originated from the high and<br>middle altitudes had significantly higher contents of chlorogenic acids, i.e., 3-caffeoylquinic (3-CQA) and<br>5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) than coffee beans that originated from the low altitude. The sucrose<br>content of coffee beans that originated from the low latitude was significantly higher than the sucrose<br>content of coffee beans that originated from middle and high altitudes. Washed coffee beans contained<br>significantly higher amounts of dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-DCQA), caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA),<br>chlorogenic acid (TCGA), and trigonelline than unwashed coffee beans. However, unwashed coffee<br>beans had significantly higher 3-caffeoylquinic (3-CQA) and caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (CFQA)<br>contents than washed coffee beans. Unwashed coffee beans had higher values for primary defect,<br>secondary defect, odour, total-point and preliminary grade whilst washed coffee beans had better scores<br>for acidity, body, and flavour attributes, which distinctly influence the ultimate taste profile of coffee<br>origins. It is concluded that coffee bean quality attributes and contents of the associated chlorogenic<br>acids improved in response to increased altitude under both shaded and unshaded conditions regardless<br>of the type of processing method used. The results imply that growing coffee plants in the highlands and<br>midlands rather than in the lowlands as well as washing the beans results in the production of coffee<br>beans with high quality attributes and chlorogenic acid contents that could meet the rising international<br>market demands for high cup quality.<br><br></p> Adugnaw Mintesnot, Nigussie Dechassa ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/495 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 08:07:56 -0500 Diagnosing the Suitability of Lake Water for Domestic and Agricultural Uses: A Case Study in Eastern Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/496 <p>Abstract: Lake Adele is one of the lakes giving incomparable economic benefits in Eastern Hararghe<br>zone. It is being used for irrigation and water supply purposes, especially for animals. However, the lake<br>water quality has not yet been analyzed even though it is traditionally believed that it has quality problems.<br>This research was, thus, undertaken to evaluate the quality, identify the origin, and analyze the hydrochemical<br>composition of the lake water. Three water samples were collected from the lake by a grab<br>sampling method. Samples were analyzed for six physicochemical parameters (temperature, EC, TDS, TA,<br>pH, and turbidity), major cations and anions, minor anions and trace metals using standard procedures.<br>The laboratory measurements were weighed against the local and global standards. The results of the<br>analysis revealed that the lake water has exceedingly intolerable levels of certain physical and chemical<br>parameters. The GW-Chart software was also used to produce the piper diagram that can graphically show<br>the origin and geochemical composition of the lake water, which revealed that the origin of the lake is<br>deep groundwater with a major geochemical composition of sodium bicarbonate. It is concluded that the<br>lake water has particularly excess turbidity and dangerous levels of nitrate (NO3<br>-1), nitrite (NO2<br>-), ammonia<br>(NH3), and lead (Pb) that would make it unsafe to use for drinking as well as excess levels of salinity, pH,<br>and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) that would make it unfit to use for irrigation.<br><br></p> Haile Arefayne Shishaye ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/496 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 08:06:47 -0500 Effect of Integrating Variety, Seed Treatment, and Foliar Fungicide Spray Timing on Managing Common Bean Anthracnose at Bako, Western Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/499 <p>Abstract: Bean anthracnose [Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. And Magn.) Lams.-Scrib] is one of<br>the major diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and causes huge yield losses in western<br>Ethiopia. The research was conducted at Bako during 2014 main cropping season with the objectives<br>to: 1) assess the efficacy of seed treatment and foliar fungicide spray timing; 2) determine the effect of<br>integrated use of common bean varieties, seed treatment and foliar fungicide spray timing on<br>anthracnose severity, yield and yield components; and 3) assess the economic feasibility of the<br>treatments. The treatments consisted of three bean varieties (Awash Melka, Awash-1 and Mexican<br>142), two levels of seed treatment (thiram-treated at the rate of 5 g kg-1 seed and non-treated) and four<br>foliar spray timing with tebuconazole at the rate of 350 ml ha-1 (at the fifth trifoliate, flowering, pod<br>setting stages and unsprayed control). The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block<br>design (RCBD) in a factorial arrangement and replicated three times per treatment. Disease<br>parameters were assessed from 18 pre-tagged plants per plot; yield components were assessed from<br>ten randomly pre-tagged plants; seed yields were recorded from plants in the three central rows in<br>each plot. Variety, seed treatment, and foliar spray timing interacted significantly (p  0.05) to<br>influence foliage and pod disease severity index, area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC),<br>infected pod per plant and seed yield. Awash-1, without seed treatment and without foliar spray,<br>showed the highest (86.0%) foliage severity and the highest (71.32%) pod severity with calculated<br>AUDPC values of 2771.19 and 1150.25%-days for leaf and pod, respectively. Mexican 142 from<br>treated-seed and sprayed with tebuconazole at the fifth trifoliate stage produced the highest (2354.074<br>kg ha-1) seed yield, followed by Awash-1 (2239.76 kg ha-1) from non-treated seed and sprayed starting<br>at the flowering stage. The highest marginal rates of return of 3071 and 2568% were calculated for<br>Awash-1 without seed treatments but sprayed at flowering and pod setting, respectively, followed by<br>Awash Melka (1962%) that was sown without seed treatment but sprayed at the flowering stage.<br>Therefore, Awash-1 and Awash Melka without seed treatment and spraying with tebuconazole at the<br>flowering stage resulted in the optimum yields of the crop, indicating that these treatments could be<br>practiced as the most effective management measures against common bean anthracnose for<br>sustainable production of the crop in the study area and elsewhere with similar agroecologies.<br><br></p> Abraham Negera, Mashilla Dejene ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/499 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 08:05:49 -0500 Practices and Challenges of Beekeeping in Chiro District of West Hararghe Zone, Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/501 <p>Abstracts: Ethiopia is the leading honey producer in Africa and one of the ten largest honey<br>producing countries in the world. However, low productivity and poor quality of honey and other bee<br>products are the major constraints faced by honey producers. The exact number of people engaged in<br>honey production and the challenges they face are not well known. Lack of documented information<br>on honey production and challenges hinders extension supports. Therefore, a survey was conducted<br>in Chiro district (woreda) in 2013/2014 with the objective of eliciting information on practices of<br>honey production, beekeeping management systems and associated challenges faced by honey<br>producing farmers in the study area. Six representative peasant associations were selected using a<br>purposive sampling method. A total of 120 beekeepers were interviewed on major beekeeping<br>management practice and challenges they were facing. The results were subjected to descriptive<br>statistics using SPSS. Of all the respondents, only 8 (6.7%) were women. A total of 863, 818<br>traditional beehives and 45 modern beehives were owned by the respondents. The average numbers<br>of traditional and modern beehives owned per respondent were 6.87 and 0.38 respectively. Only<br>58.8% of the traditional beehives and 46.7% of the modern beehives were colonized by bees while the<br>remaining ones were empty. Most (53.4%) of the respondents kept the beehives under the roof of<br>their houses where as 30.7% kept them in the garden; 15.1% inside the house, and the 0.8% on trees.<br>The main sources of the foundation colony were three, i.e., catching bee swarms, gift from family, and<br>buying. The major challenges were shortage of bee colonies, escalating prices of modern hives and<br>their accessories as well as low level of extension services. It is concluded that honey production in<br>the study area is dominated by traditional practices, and constrained by shortage of bee colonies,<br>inadequate farmers’ technical know-how and practical skills, high prices of modern hives and their<br>accessories, lack of practically supported extension services on modern beekeeping technologies,<br>incidences of pests, low participation of women, and lack of year-round availability bee forage. The<br>results imply that the sector needs tangible supports from the extension system in terms of improved<br>technologies as well as in building knowledge of farmers for better management of honey bees to<br>increase productivity and income of households through honey production.<br><br></p> Temesgen Terefe ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/501 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 08:03:07 -0500 Effect of Non-Conventional Storage Methods on External and Internal Egg Qualities https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/502 <p>Abstract: To know and identify the traditional practices and generate relevant information on egg<br>storage methods, a survey work was conducted in the East Wollega Zone of Ethiopia. The survey was<br>carried out with a stratified sampling technique and a structured questionnaire using a total of 315<br>households (225 from rural and 90 from urban owning chickens) were purposefully selected. Two<br>experiments, of similar experimental materials, procedures and designs were conducted at different<br>time of the year (May and August) to evaluate these traditional storage methods at Haramaya<br>University poultry farm. A factorial experiment of 2 by 5 with completely randomized design using<br>storage containers and storage time as treatment was used. The storage times were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20<br>days. Five most common egg storage containers were identified in the rural and urban areas of East<br>Wollega. These storage methods include cartons, polyethen bags, baskets, clay pots and teff grain.<br>The result further indicated that depending on the availability of the storage materials in the locality,<br>87 percent of the urban households (n = 90) store eggs in cartons and polyethene bags in order of<br>availability. Seventy nine percent of the rural households (n = 225) ranked teff as the most common<br>storage materials used followed by the basket and clay pots. Among the quality parameters<br>considered, weight loss (%) and daily weight loss (%) of eggs were highly affected (P &lt; 0.001) by<br>storage containers, durations and their interactions during both experiments. The maximum weight<br>loss was observed after storage period of 16 days for all containers. Polythene bags storage maintained<br>minimum weight loss Vs the baskets at all stages of storage duration. Only storage durations had<br>significant effects (P &lt; 0.05) on the egg shell thickness during experiment I. Inconsistent but<br>significant effect of storage durations was observed on the shell weight during experiment I, and<br>weights of yolk and albumen during experiment II. Storage containers during experiment I, and<br>storage durations during experiment II showed significant effects on albumen height and haugh unit<br>values. Except polythene bags which had higher albumen height and haugh unit values, the other<br>containers did not show significant variations for both parameters. The effect of storage duration on<br>these parameters was linear with increasing storage duration; and higher beyond the 16 days of<br>storage. Thus, it was concluded that using polyethylene bags and 16 days of storage could give the<br>best result to store eggs among the traditional methods compared in this experiment.<br><br></p> Mohammed Y. Kurtu, Dereje Duressa, Alemu Yami ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/502 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 08:04:28 -0500 Effect of Processing Methods and Blending Cereal and Legume Grain on Some Mineral and Sensory Qualities of Weaning Foods https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/503 <p>Abstract: The most important nutritional problems in weaning foods consumed by infants in many parts<br>of developing nations including Ethiopia are deficiencies in macronutrients and micronutrients. In view of<br>this, the effect of processing method and blending of teff, finger millet, and sprouted groundnut on<br>mineral contents and sensory acceptability of weaning food gruel was investigated. The treatments<br>consisted of three blends B1 (20% teff + 40% finger millet + 40% groundnut), B2 (30% teff + 30% finger<br>millet + 40% groundnut) and B3 (40% teff + 20% finger millet + 40% groundnut) and six processing<br>condition (roasting, fermentation, three duration of sprouting and unprocessed blend as a control). The<br>experiment was laid out as a Completely Randomized Design (RCD) in a factorial arrangement (3 x 6 = 18<br>treatments) and replicated three times per treatment. The mineral contents of initial ingredients and<br>blended samples were analyzed using standard methods. Processing condition had significant (P &lt; 0.05)<br>effect on mineral and sensory properties of weaning food gruel. On sprouting (groundnut), roasting, and<br>fermentation, zinc content increased. The highest zinc content (3.86 mg/100 g) was obtained in response<br>to sprouting groundnut for 12 hr in blend B3 and the lowest was (1.91 mg/100 g) in the control weaning<br>food B1. The highest iron (32.96 mg/100 g) content was recorded for roasted weaning food of B3, while<br>the lowest (14.70 mg/100 g) was obtained in the control blend B1. The highest calcium (304.82 mg/100 g)<br>content was in the roasted weaning food blend B1 and the lowest (110.63 mg/100 g) was in the control<br>blend B1. Sensory analysis revealed that the most acceptable product was obtained from roasted blends of<br>weaning food (i.e., color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability scores of 5.36, 5.66, 5.84 and 5.75 on 7-<br>point hedonic scale, respectively). Overall, the result showed, roasting or fermentation or sprouting of<br>groundnut (12 to 24 hr and drying the sprout at 50 oC for 20 hr) and blending level at B3 have improved<br>the nutrient quality and sensory acceptability of weaning food gruel compared to control sample. In the<br>developing country like Ethiopia factory processed weaning foods are not affordable for majority of the<br>population, such domestic processing conditions can be promoted at each household to improve weaning<br>food gruel quality for child of weaning age.<br><br></p> Menure Heiru, Geremew Bultosa, Geremew Bultosa, Negussie Bussa ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/503 Tue, 27 Nov 2018 08:01:13 -0500