East African Journal of Sciences https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas <p>An International and Multidisciplinary Journal, Published Biannually by the Research and Extension Office, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers and disseminates scientific and technological information to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities; and accepts papers from anywhere else in the world.</p> Haramaya University en-US East African Journal of Sciences 1992-0407 Authors agree to retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously that allows others to share with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Genetic Variability and Correlation of Traits among Progenies of Potato Crosses in Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/1389 <p>Background: Investigating the causes and magnitude of genetic variation in segregating potato population that derived from crossing is vital to know the genetic consequences of hybridization and improve potato varieties. However, very little effort has been carried in creating local population through crossing and genetic information on created potato population.<br>Objective: The study was conducted to assess genetic variability and correlation among traits in locally created potato crosses population.<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 81 genotypes were evaluated for 18 traits in a 9 x 9 simple lattice design. Data collection and analysis was done from sixteen plants or central rows.<br>Results: The results revealed highly significant variations for all traits except proportion of medium tuber size and specific gravity of tubers indicating the existence of genetic variability among population. Marketable and total tuber yields variability of tested genotypes ranged from 2.51 to 55.62 t ha -1 and 10.82 to 58.31 t ha -1, respectively. The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation ranged between 4.67 to 92.88% and 3.25 to 73.5%, respectively. Heritability in broad sense and genetic advance as percent of mean also ranged from 28.81 to 91.64% and 4.65 to 90.33%, respectively with less influence of environmental fluctuations. Total tuber yield had positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlations with stem height, tuber yield per plant, tuber number per plant, average tuber weight and marketable tuber yield. This indicated that the traits are heritable with governing of additive gens for effective selection.<br>Conclusion: The range and mean values of the variables obtained suggest the existence of sufficient variability among the tested and possibility of wide genetic base creation for improving potato population using locally created genotypes. Hence, promising genotypes with desirable traits could be recommended to produce new variety or use as parental lines for future breeding program.<br><br></p> Manamno Workayehu Wassu Mohammed Tesfaye Abebe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 15 1 1 16 Factors driving the expansion of Helichrysum splendidum in Menz-Guassa community conservation area of the Afroalpine ecosystem of Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/1390 <p>Background: The rapid expansion of Helichrysum splendidum shrub into Menz-Guassa community conservation area has resulted in the scarcity of Guassa grasses and this has threatened the livelihoods of the local community.<br>Objective: A field survey was undertaken to examine the effect of human disturbance and soil burrows on the expansion of H. splendidum.<br>Materials and Methods: Two transects were laid out along altitudinal gradient with a 200 m interval and 15 quadrats (5 m  5 m each) were arranged on each quadrat at every 100 m for data collection on the level of human disturbance, number of soil burrows, and the abundance of H. splendidum. In total, 90 composite soil samples were collected from three soil layers (litter, 0–3 cm and 3–6 cm) from the five subplots (size: 1 m x 1 m each) which were established in the four corners and one in the center of each quadrat. The soil seed bank study was undertaken in the greenhouse and the seedlings grown were identified to the species level the density of which was recorded. The General Linear Model (GLM) was employed to test the effects of human disturbance and soil burrows on the abundance and density of seedlings of H. splendidum.<br>Results: The results showed that abundance of H. splendidum significantly increased with increasing level of human disturbance, but decreased with the increasing number of soil burrows (P &lt; 0.001). Higher germination density was recorded from soil seed bank with moderate and high levels of human disturbance compared to soil banks with very high levels human disturbance. However, the density of seedlings showed an increasing trend with increasing the number of soil burrows.<br>Conclusion: Our overall results suggest that human disturbances (i.e., grass cutting and wood collections) and soil burrowing by mole rats are the major drivers of the expansion of H. splendidum and hence mechanisms that halt such process need be sought to restore the cover of Guassa grass on which the livelihoods of the local community largely depend.<br><br></p> Sisay Wube Debissa Lemessa Bikila Warkineh Dullo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 15 1 17 24 Abundance and Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in Soils under Different Rangeland Use Types in the Middle Awash Basin, Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/1391 <p>Background: Shrinking of rangelands/natural grasslands has led to various inter-communal conflicts and loss of livelihoods among pastoralists in Ethiopia. Restoring the rangelands is an important step to be taken to alleviate the problem. Various aggressively spreading invasive weed species are threatening the existence and sustainability of rangelands/natural grasslands. In addition, moisture stress is a major hindrance to any efforts made to restore the rangeland/natural grasslands. The role of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in establishing plant seedlings and regenerating natural grasslands through enhancing water and nutrient uptake is well documented.<br>Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of land use and soil types on abundance and diversity of AMF in semi-arid rangeland areas of the Middle Awash Basin in the Ethiopian Rift Valley region.<br>Materials and Methods: Representative rhizosphere soil samples were taken from different land use types (cultivated, open grassland, shrubland, and prosopis-invaded land) and used to assess AMF diversity and abundance in relation to soil physical and chemical characteristics. The same soil samples were used to establish trap cultures for spore formation and colonization assessment.<br>Results: In the present study, morphological analysis from field soils and trap cultures revealed 16 distinct morphotypes belonging to 10 genera including Glomus (3), Claroideoglomus (3), Funneliformis (2), Rhizophagus (2) and one from each of Acaulospora, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Sclerocystis, Scutellospora and Septoglomus. Spore abundance significantly varied, ranging from 265–481 and 319–488 (100-g-1) in trap culture and field soil samples, respectively. Grassland soil samples displayed the highest spore abundance, followed by soil samples from shrubland and cultivated fields, with the lowest records from prosopis-invaded land use type. However, sporulation and level of colonization were higher in cultivated lands, which have lower spore abundance than open grass and shrublands.<br>Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that converting land use from traditionally managed rangelands/grazing system to cultivated lands leads to encroachment by Prosopis spp. on the lands and significantly reduces AMF spore abundance, diversity, and percentage root colonization. Thus, the ever-expanding encroachment of prosopis on the open grasslands and croplands around the Awash River necessitates implementing strict measures to decrease pressure on the soil biota underneath.<br><br></p> Dawit Terefe Zerihun Belay Fasil Assefa Kibebew Kibret Nigussie Dechassa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 15 1 25 40 Sequential Application of Various Insecticides for the Management of Cotton Bollworm (Hubner) Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Cotton Production https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/1393 <p>Background: Cotton bollworm (Hubner) (<em>Helicoverpa</em> <em>armigera</em>) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major constraint to cotton production and productivity in Ethiopia.<br>Objective: To determine the best spray sequence of various insecticides as a strategy of resistance management of the pest.<br>Materials and Methods: Field experiments were conducted during the 2017 and 2018 main cropping season at Werer Agricultural Research Center. Eight different insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, deltamethrin, chlorfenapyr, lufenuron+profenofos, chlorpyriphos, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, and alphacypermethrin) belonging to five major insecticide classes were systematically arranged in six treatments and three spraying sequences along with a control treatment. The experiment was laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times per treatment. Data were collected on bollworm population, damaged squares, flowers, and bolls at pre and post insecticide application, boll number per plant, and seed cotton yield. Using the modified Abbott’s formula, the percent efficacy was computed.<br>Results: Significant differences (P&lt;0.05) were observed among the treatments for post spray larvae count, damaged squares, and boll counts in the 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. Sequential and rotational application of a cocktail of the insecticides, namely, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, profenofos, and chlorfenapyr, chlorantraniliprole, lufenuron+profenofos resulted in the best control with 81.8% and 76.4% of H. <em>armigera</em> larvae controlling efficacy. The lowest average cotton boll number (9.69/plant) and cotton yields (2.24 ton/ha) were obtained from the unsprayed treatment.<br>Conclusion: Applying the insecticides in sequence increased seed cotton yield by 36.2% and 33.9% compared to the yields obtained from the unsprayed plots. The results imply that rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action is the best strategy to control the pest.<br><br></p> Zemedkun Alemu Ferdu Azerefegne Geremew Terefe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 15 1 41 50 Short-Run and Long-Run Relationships between Economic Growth, Inflation, Exchange Rate and Remittance in Ethiopia: Application of Vector Error Correction Model Approach https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/1394 <p>Background: Economic growth is the central aim of countries worldwide. Sustaining economic growth is among the main challenges in Ethiopia. This could be attributable to the fluctuations in domestic inflation and exchange rate.<br>Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the short-run and long-run relationships between economic growth, inflation, exchange rate and remittance in Ethiopia.<br>Materials and Methods: The yearly time series data from 1990 to 2020 (30 years) was used. The Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests of unit root were employed to examine whether the series became stationary or not at level. The Johanson co-integration test was performed to determine the co-integration of the variables in the long-term. After stationarity and integration tests were performed, the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) was employed to estimate the model.<br>Results: The trace statistic and the maximum eigen-value test of co-integration showed that at least one co-integrating vector (r&gt;1) exists in the system at 0.05 level of significance. The results provided that for economic growth, the system corrects its previous period disequilibrium at the speed of 27.34% yearly in the long-run. For inflation rate, exchange rate and remittance, the system corrects its previous period disequilibrium at a speed of 3.58%, 5.38% and 9.84% yearly in the long-run, respectively. Economic growth was negatively affected by inflation rate and positively affected by remittance in the shot-run. Inflation rate was negatively affected by remittance in the short-run. The exchange rate was negatively affected by economic growth and inflation and remittance was negatively affected by economic growth in the short-run.<br>Conclusion: The short-run changes in inflation and remittance had a strong and significant effect on the changing economic growth in the long-run. The study recommended that a monetary policy be formulated with the objective of achieving and maintaining price stability, as opening the market for receiving remittance through increasing investment and human capital and to ensure inflation rate stability as well as enhance local production and export trade.<br><br></p> Murad Mohammed Beyan Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 15 1 51 60 Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Chicken Eggs, Eastern Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/1395 <p>Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a variety of infections in humans and animals that can pose a major public health burden in many countries, including Ethiopia.<br>Objectives: This study was aimed to isolate Staphylococcus aureus present on the shell surfaces and in the contents of chicken eggs, and determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns.<br>Material and Methods: One hundred seventy-four (174) egg samples were obtained from open market and 161 from poultry farm. The surfaces of eggs were sampled using a sterile cotton swab. After sterilizing the shells, the egg contents were sampled. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus was done based on culture characteristics, and biochemical tests. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using disc diffusion method.<br>Results: A total of 93 (27.8%) Staphylococcus aureus samples were isolated. From these, 28 (17.4%) were from Haramaya University poultry farm while 65 (37.4%) were from market. In addition, 63 (18.8%) were from the shell while 30 (8.9%) were from the egg content. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in the egg shell from open markets was significantly higher than the content from the egg shells obtained from farms (P = 0.021). The level of Staphylococcus aureus content was also significantly higher in the market (P = 0.003). All 76 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested with the overall value 3.9–92.0% level of resistance pattern showing higher resistant to penicillin (92%) and ampicillin (89.5%). A lower level of resistance was observed to chloramphenicol, gentamycin and ciprofloxacin with complete susceptibility to vancomycin. Multiple drug resistance was detected in 86.8% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates.<br>Conclusion: The study showed a significant level of Staphylococcus aureus with considerable antibiotic resistant pattern. Further studies are needed to better define bacterial resistance to antibiotic agents with emphasis on surveillance of multiple drug resistance.<br><br></p> Jelalu Kemal Wakene Beji Gebregeorgis Tesfamariam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 15 1 61 70 Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and Chemical Composition under Irrigation in two Districts of South Omo Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/1396 <p>Background: Productivity and reproductive performances of livestock in Ethiopia is low mainly due to scarcity and quality of feed. The Desho grass is indigenous to Ethiopia and belongs to the family Poaceae and has high biomass production potential that could be used to tackle the problem of scarcity and quality of feed.<br>Objectives: This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Desho grass varieties grown in irrigated lowland of Dassench and Hamer districts of South Omo Zone in southwestern Ethiopia.<br>Material and Methods: The Sermemiret Kebele from Dassench District and Eribore Kebele from Hamer district were selected for a participatory on-farm experimental trial with active involvements of district pastoral office experts and Kebele development agents. Four Desho grass varieties, namely, Areka-DZF#590, Kulumisa-DZF#590, Kindokisha-DZF#591 and Areka local were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield (DMY), cutting height, number of tillers per plant (NTPP) and leaf to stem ratio (LTSR) were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS.<br>Results: The highest (P &lt; 0.05) dry matter yield (35.09 t ha-1) and Crude protein (CP) (129.50g kg-1, DM) were recorded for Areka-DZF#590 whereas the lowest dry matter yield (16.96 t ha-1) and CP (90.60g kg-1, DM) were obtained from Areka local check.<br>Conclusion and Implication: We conclude that Areka-DZF#590 Desho grass variety was found to be the highest in dry matter and crude protein production. Pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and farmers in the area could enhance feed availability for increased livestock production.<br>detergent fiber; Crude protein; Cutting height; Neutral detergent fiber; Number of tillers per plant</p> Denbela Hidosa Demerew Getaneh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 15 1 71 78 Production Practices, Post-harvest Handling, and Application of some neglected Plants of Nutritional Importance in Traditional Farming Systems of Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/ejas/article/view/1397 <p>Background: In Ethiopia, particularly in the Benishangul-Gumuz region, there are numerous underutilized plants like figl (Raphanus sativus), girgir (Eruca sativa) and karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa) which are cultivated and consumed only by the local communities. However, information on production practices, postharvest handling, and utilization trends of these plants is limited.<br>Objective: Assess the production, handling, and utilization pattern of figl, girgir, and karkade in the Benshangul-Gumuz region of Ethiopia.<br>Methodology: A cross-sectional household survey was used to collect primary data from 274 producers and 30 users using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Version 20.0) software package.<br>Results: The results showed that about 46% of farmers produce figl and girgir for food, medicine, and income generation. More than half of the farmers produce karkade for beverage and medicine. About 93% of the respondents showed that, edible parts of figl and girgir could attain commercial maturity within 15–35 days. However, calyces of karkade takes 121–150 days. Most of the farmers consume leaves and roots of figl and leaves of girgir as local salads while 84.31% use dried calyces of karkade for making a beverage. About 94% of the farmers allocated less than 0.25 hectares of land for the production of figl and girgir while 81% of them allocated this amount of land for the production of karkade. The majority (80%) of them are not getting extension services for the production of figl, girgir and karkade, and 53% lament that there is no market linkage for these crops.<br>Conclusions: Figl and girgir play significant roles in mitigating food insecurity because they reach commercial maturity within a short period and the possibility of cropping about five cycles throughout the year, particularly in marginal lands with agronomic practices accessible to farmers. Therefore, future research should incorporate packages of farming technology including propagating the crops at research centers, adaptation trial across different agro-ecology, improving of agronomic practices, variety registration and promotion.<br><br></p> Ebisa Olika Keyata Yetenayet B. Tola Geremew Bultosa Sirawdink Fikreyesus Forsido Assefa Gidesa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 15 1 79 94