East African Journal of Sciences 2018-01-17T11:46:27+00:00 Dr. Adem Hiko Open Journal Systems <p>An International and Multidisciplinary Journal, Published Biannually by the Research and Extension Office, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers and disseminates scientific and technological information to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities; and accepts papers from anywhere else in the world.</p> Traditional Fermented Dairy Products of Ethiopia: A Review 2018-01-17T11:21:29+00:00 Tesfemariam Berhe Finn Kvist Vogensen Richard Ipsen Eyassu Seifu Mohammed Y. Kurtu Egon Bech Hansen <p>Abstract: Fermented foods play an important role in human nutrition and protecting against infectious<br />diseases. Understanding the properties of traditionally fermented dairy products as well as a proper<br />analysis of the indigenous processing steps are important in order to recommend appropriate<br />manufacturing protocol and procedures for commercialization. Little information is available on the<br />general characteristics and processing practices of traditional dairy products of Ethiopia. Therefore, the<br />objective of this review was to critically assess and summarize information on indigenous fermented dairy<br />products of the country. The traditional dairy products included in this review are ergo (spontaneously<br />fermented milk), ititu (spontaneously fermented milk curd), kibe (traditional butter), neter kibe (ghee),<br />dhanaan (Ethiopian fermented camel milk), ayib (Ethiopian cottage cheese), hazo (spiced fermented<br />buttermilk), arera (defatted sour milk) and aguat (acid whey). The indigenous dairy products have good<br />nutritional and functional potential to scale up to commercial production. However, detailed investigation<br />on the characterization of the products and standardization of the manufacturing steps should be<br />undertaken. The huge potential of microbial biodiversity related with the long storage stability of the<br />traditional dairy products especially dhanaan and ititu shows promising potential for development of<br />technologically important indigenous starter cultures.</p><p>Keywords: Ayib; Dhanaan; Ergo; Ethiopian dairy products; Ititu.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Ethiopian Dairy Value Chain with a Particular Focus on Cattle and Camel Milk: Current Scenarios and Investment Opportunities 2018-01-17T11:21:29+00:00 Zelalem Yilma Yonas Hailu Takele Wolkaro Mitiku Eshetu <p class="MediumGrid21"> </p><p class="MediumGrid21"><strong>Abstract:</strong> Cattle and camel represent important cultural, social, nutritional as well as economic values to a substantial proportion of the livestock keeping communities dwelling in various agro-ecologies of Ethiopia. The country has a substantial potential for dairy development considering the large livestock populations found in the country with other productivity enhancing factors. However, despite large population, the productivity is by far low; that the country to be a net importer of dairy products with import values significantly exceeding export values. Among others; limited market outlets for milk and milk products, inefficient and untimely artificial insemination service delivery, lack of crossbreed heifers, shortage and increasing price of feeds especially agro-industrial by-products and poor linkages among key value-chain actors are the frequently cited factors deemed guilty. It is therefore, with this breathing situation that this review report made an effort to highlight the prevailing situation of the Ethiopian cattle and camel milk value chains as well as the missing link. Based on the current scenario, it also suggests appropriate improvement interventions to take and when taken right then producers in particular and the country at general could make use of optimum if not maximum benefits that can be tapped from the sector.</p><p class="MediumGrid21"> </p><p class="MediumGrid21"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Actors Linkage; Livestock; Marketing; Productivity </p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## Opportunities for Producing Dairy Products from Camel Milk: A Comparison with Bovine Milk 2018-01-17T11:21:29+00:00 Richard Ipsen <p>Abstract: Camel milk is known to differ markedly from bovine milk in terms of its detailed protein composition and colloidal structure. Noteworthy is the lack of β-lactoglobulin, the small content of -casein and high proportion of β-casein in the casein micelles of the milk. The colloidal structure is also different with larger casein micelles and smaller fat globules. The present review presents and discusses current knowledge on the composition and colloidal structure of camel milk, relates this to bovine milk, and points out where research is lacking and what opportunities for processing of camel milk appears to be most promising. Pasteurized camel milk appears straightforward and is used industrially, but UHT and sterilization treatment of camel milk cause protein instability. Hence, research is needed to solve this problem. Acidified milk drinks appear promising as do production of camel milk cheese. Butter and ghee production is possible and camel milk can be made into palatable ice cream. The different colloidal structure of camel milk, compared to bovine milk, means that most processing technology cannot be directly transferred and there is hence a need for suitable research-based adaptations.<br />Keywords: heat treatment; casein micelle; protein composition; fermented milk products; butter</p> 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Coagulation and Preparation of Soft Unripened Cheese from Camel Milk using Camel Chymosin 2018-01-17T11:21:29+00:00 Tekuam Walle Mohammed Yusuf Richard Ipsen Yonas Hailu Mitiku Eshetu <p>Abstract: Camel milk is known for not being suitable for processing it into different dairy products.<br />Efforts have been made to make cheese from camel milk, but still there is no well accepted<br />manufacturing protocol to be adopted. Hence this experiment was initiated to investigate the effect of<br />different levels of camel chymosin concentrations on camel milk gelation properties and the influence<br />of cooking (at 55oC) on the characteristics of soft un-ripened cheese made from camel milk. Soft<br />unripened cheese was made with 3x2 factorial design with CRD arrangement in which three levels of<br />camel chymosin concentrations (40, 70, and 100 IMCU/L) and two levels of cooking (cooked and<br />uncooked curd) and then cheese quality, yield, texture profile analysis (TPA) hardness and sensory<br />attributes were analyzed. The shortest gelation time was observed for camel chymosin concentration of<br />100 IMCU/L and 70 IMCU/L whereas the highest maximum gel firmness was observed for camel<br />chymosin level of 40 IMCU/L. Significantly highest (P&lt;0.001) cheese yield was observed for uncooked<br />cheese at 100 IMCU/ L coagulant level. Cooked cheese made using 100 IMCU/L had significantly<br />highest values for protein, total solid, ash and hardness. Whereas, the color, texture and appearance<br />scores were significantly higher for 40 IMCU/L cooked cheese. However, the taste, aroma and overall<br />acceptance of cooked cheese made using 70 IMCU/L gave the highest score. It could be concluded<br />that, using medium level chymosin concentration (70 IMCU/L) as well as cooking of camel milk curd<br />could be suitable approaches for making of soft unripened cheese from camel milk.<br />Keywords: Camel chymosin; Camel milk; Coagulation; Cooking</p> 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Activation of Lactoperoxidase System: Evaluation of the Acidification Rate, Microbial Quality, and Shelf Life of Camel and Cow Milk 2018-01-17T11:21:29+00:00 Bekele Amenu Mitiku Eshetu Yonas Hailu Egon Bech Hansen <p>Abstract: Camel milk is produced in areas where there is lack of milk cooling facilities coupled with high<br />ambient temperature that exacerbates milk spoilage before it reaches the ultimate market and consumers.<br />To overcome this problem lactoperoxidase system (LPS) is one the methods to preserve freshness of milk<br />until it is marketed or reaches where there is milk cooling facilities. This study was conducted with the<br />objectives of assessing the effect LPS activation on preservation of raw camel and cow milk and to<br />comparing acidification rate of LPS activated camel and cow milk. The effect of LPS activation on<br />inhibition of selected pathogens (i.e. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) was also studied. The treatments<br />consisted of a 2 x 4 factorial experiment (LPS activated and non LPS activated with 0, 6, 12, and 24 hrs<br />storage time at 30°C treatments) in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with a factorial arrangement<br />and three replications per treatment. Twenty-four camel and cow milk samples obtained from Errer valley<br />ago-pastoralists and Haramaya University Dairy farm, respectively were examined for titratable acidity, total<br />bacterial count (TBC) and coliform count (CC). The result revealed that titratable acidity, CC and TBC in<br />LPS activated milk samples were significantly lower (P&lt; 0.05) than their respective values in non LPS<br />activated milk samples for both cow and camel milk, stored for 6, 12 and 24 hrs. The percent of acidity<br />were not significantly (P&gt;0-05) different than that of the initial acidity level in LPS activated cow and camel<br />milk up to 12hrs of storage. LPS activated milk showed bactericidal effect against TBC and CC both in<br />cow and camel milk. In the current experiment, activation of LPS in camel milk reduced the growth rate<br />of E. coli as compared to non LPS activated milk samples. The bactericidal effect of the LPS suggests that<br />activation of the LPS would be of paramount importance in controlling the growth of microorganisms and<br />improving the microbial quality of both cow and camel milk in the study area. Cow milk with activated LPS<br />showed a slight delay in acidification rate compared to the non LPS activated cow and camel milk using a<br />thermophilic starter culture. From the study, we can suggest that LPS activation of both cow and camel<br />milk helps to extend the shelf life of fresh milk up to 6 and 12 hours, respectively and enables milk<br />producers to sell fresh milk within this time frame and reduce milk wastage. LPS activation can be used in<br />improving the microbiological quality and the shelf-life of raw camel and cow milk where milk cooling<br />facilities are not available. LPS activated milk could also be used for manufacturing of fermented milk<br />products.<br />Keyword: Camel milk; cow milk; hydrogen peroxide; lactoperoxidase system; thiocyanate</p> 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clotting Activities of Partially Purified Extracts of Moringa oleifera L. on Dromedary Camel Milk 2018-01-17T11:21:29+00:00 Mezgebu Abate Terefe Ameha Kebede Misrak Kebede <p>Abstract: Processing camel milk into shelf stable value added milk products is not yet well developed.<br />Unlike the milk of cows and small ruminants, camel milk does not readily coagulate by rennet due to its<br />inherent properties. Therfore, experiments were conducted to evaluate the clotting activities of partially<br />purified Moringa oleifera extract on camel milk and to identify the optimum pH, temperature and<br />concentration of the partially purified extract that would result in strong curd of camel milk. These<br />included three temperature points (55, 60 and 65°C), three pH values(4.5, 5 and 5.5) and five levels of<br />partially purified Moringa oleifera extracts obtained from seed and leaf samples (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%). The<br />results revealed that temperature, pH, and concentrations of partially purified seed and leaf extracts of<br />Moringa oleifera had significant (p&lt;0.05) effect on the clotting activities of camel milk. The highest camel<br />milk clotting activity and curd firmness were observed at pH 5, temperature of 65°C and partially purified<br />extract concentration of 10% for both seeds and leaves, while the lowest values were recorded at pH 5.5,<br />temperature of 55°C and a partially purified extract concentration of 40%, respectively. An increase in<br />camel milk clotting activity was observed with a decrease in milk pH from 5.5 to 4.5. Camel milk clotting<br />activities increased with increasing temperature. However, it decreased with increase in partially purified<br />extract concentration for both seed and leaf extracts. Therefore, the capability of the partially purified<br />extract of Moringa oleifera seeds to coagulate camel milk and to form firm curd combined with its high<br />ratio of milk clotting to proteolytic activity could make it a useful rennet substitute in the dairy industry.<br />Keywords: Ammonium sulfate fractionation; Curd firmness; Milk-clotting activity; Partially purified<br />extract</p> 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Potential of Camel Milk and Extracts of Major Plants Browsed by the Animal for Diabetes Treatment 2018-01-17T11:21:30+00:00 Negussie Bussa Anteneh Belayneh Merga Deressa <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> Diabetes is one of the world's greatest healthcare challenges affecting millions of people, and recognized as one of an emerging, and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia. This study was done to evaluate the potential of camel milk and extracts of major plants browsed by the animal for the treatment of diabetes. Fresh samples of both camel milk and major plant species frequently browsed by camels were collected from Babile (Oromia Region) and Shinille (Somali region). Taxonomic identification of the plant species browsed by the animal was made, the leaves were dried under shade, and pulverized for nutrient analysis and extraction. Crud extracts were kept under a low temperature (4<sup>0</sup>C) until fed to experimental rats. Eighty adult Winstar rats were divided into sixteen groups and group one through twelve were injected Streptozotocin (STZ) for diabetic whereas groups thirteen through sixteen kept non-diabetic. Group one through six were fed on the plant extracts. Groups seven through sixteen were diabetic and non-diabetic male and female treated with camel milk, Glibenclamide (500 μg/kg, p.o.), and aqueous solutions. Blood glucose levels of the rats were measured before STZ, 72 hours after STZ, and every week until the end of the experiment. Camel milk feeding showed glucose level reduction by 20.5% in male rate and 21.1% in female rate. There is no significant difference in glucose level reduction between male and female (p&gt;0.05). Extracts from<em> Acacia brevispica </em>and <em>Dichrostachys cinerea </em>showed 28.1% and 21% of glucose level reductions, respectively in diabetic rats. <em>Balanites aegyptiaca </em>showed 55.4% of glucose level reduction, significant change (p&gt;0.05).  This preliminary finding indicated that using camel milk in the diet could be alleviate diabetes, which is encouraging for further research work with more parameters and better laboratory facilities.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Babile; Blood Glucose; Glibenclamide; Shinille; Streptozotocin; Winstar rats</p><p> </p> 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##