Utilization of Iodized salt and Associated Factor in Zuway Dugda District, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, South East Ethiopia
Iodine deficiency is a major cause of preventable mental retardation, deafness, autism, short stature, and various other defects in humans around the globe. These problems can be prevented with simple slat iodization. Ethiopia has implemented slat iodization as a strategy to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). However, little is known about households’ use of iodized salt and associated factors. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 1, 2017 to August 30, 2017 in rural Zuway Dugda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional state, South East Ethiopia. A total of 402 households were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and household salt use was tested using the Rapid Test Kit from the salts used during the previous night. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine household uses of salt iodization. P-value of 0.05 was employed to declare statistical significance in multivariate analysis. This study indicated that 30.7% of the households had adequate iodine level (> 15ppm) in their salts while 60.1%, and 8.2% of the households had inadequate iodine level (< 15ppm and no iodine at all (0 ppm) respectively. Using packed type of salt (AOR=2.89, 95%CI (1.54, 5.44)), having information about iodized salt (AOR= 4.11 95%CI 2.42, 7.01) and storing salt in dry place (AOR=3.41 95% CI (1.01, 11.51) were positively associated with utilizations of adequately iodized salts. This study revealed that the availability of adequate iodized salt in the household salt was very low. Health information dissemination
to every household about the storage and the importance of utilizing iodized salt is critically important and needs to be done across the study area.