Effects of Crop Rotation and N-P Fertilizer Rate on Grain Yield and Related Characteristics of Maize and Soil Fertility at Bako, Western Oromia, Ethiopia
AbstractA trial was conducted to determine the effects of crop rotation with N-P rates on grain yield of maize and soil fertility in Bako over a period of five years. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement with rotation crops (Niger seed, haricot bean and tef) as main factor and two levels of NP fertilizers ( half recommended (55/23 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 and recommended (110/46 kg N-P2O5 ha-1) rate as sub factor and continuous maize with three replications. Higher mean grain yield of maize was recorded from maize following rotation crops with recommended rate of fertilizer compared to continuous maize. Maize following rotation crops gave mean grain yield advantage of 640 to 830 and 1921 to 1968 kg ha-1 compared to continuous maize at half and full recommended N-P fertilizer rate. Maize following Niger seed produced mean grain yield advantage of 971 and 1527 kg ha-1 compared to haricot bean and tef. Primary nutrient (N, P and K) composition of the tissue and grain of maize were significantly higher with maize following rotation crop compared to continuous maize, indicting the enhancement of the nutrient use efficiency of maize following rotation crops. Crop rotation with fertilizer amendment improved the pH of the soil. Crop rotation and N-P amendment enabled maize yields and soil fertility to be maintained at a higher level. Multiple advantages accrue from the use of crop rotation. Higher grain yield and high net return of maize were realized following Niger seed, haricot bean and tef compared to continuous maize. Maize following Niger seed followed by haricot bean with the recommended rate of fertilizer is a better management option for sustainable maize production in Western Oromia.
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