Heterosis in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Hybrids of Diverse Parental Lines for Agromorphology Characters in Ethiopia

  • Chemeda Daba
  • Amsalu Ayana
  • Adugna Wakjira
  • Habtamu Zeleke

Abstract

Heterosis breeding is a technique with potential to improve sesame yield. The productivity of
sesame need to be increased significantly to exploit the maximum benefit from the increasing world
market demand for this crop as well as to reduce the deficit in edible oil in Ethiopia. The objective of
this study was to determine the extent of heterosis for yield and yield related traits in sesame. The present
investigation on sesame comprised a full-diallel set of 10 parents and their 90 F1 crosses. The hybrids
were produced during the main growing season of 2011. Seeds of all F1 and their parents were planted in
randomized complete block design, with three replications at two experimental sites viz., Uke (1383
meters above sea level) and Wama (1436 meters above sea level) of Bako Agricultural Research Center on
12 and 14 June 2012, respectively. The data was recorded for four traits viz., days to flowering, branches
per plant, yield per plan (g) and oil content (%). Analysis of variance computed for each location and over
locations revealed highly significant differences among the parental lines and F1 hybrids for all the studied
traits. The magnitude of mid and better parent heterosis for seed yield ranged from -40.0 to 31.6-% and-
40.2 to 23.3%, respectively. The range of standard heterosis for yield and oil content was -41.8 to 13.6%
and –5.6 to 7.8%, respectively. Seven crosses of F1 and reciprocal F1 displayed positive and significant
standard heterosis for number of branches per plant while a total of 35 (37.6%) crosses of F1and
reciprocal F1 had negative better parent heterosis for days to flowering of which 18 (20.0%) displayed
negative and significant standard heterosis. A total of 16 crosses (of F1 and reciprocal F1) displayed
positive better parent heterosis for seed yield per plant, of which BG006 x EW003-1, EW023-2 x Dicho
and BG006 x EW002 crosses of F1and rcecprocal F1 exhibited positive and significant standard heterosis
of 10.5, 29.4 and 13.6%, respectively. All except two crosses of F1 displayed positive standard heterosis
for seeds oil content of which 74 (82.22%) of crosses exhibited positive and significant standard
heterosis. The different magnitude of heterosis displayed by some crosses of F1 and their reciprocal F1 for
all characters indicated the presence of maternal inheritance, which suggested the importance of
considering the use of female parents in the respective crosses and characters to maximize the exploitable
heterosis in hybrids. Generally, the results of the research revealed higher chances of producing heterotic
sesame hybrids that combined the highest yield, oil content, early maturity and high number of fertile
branches. This suggests that heterosis breeding and/or hybridization could be one of the breeding
methods in sesame in Ethiopia to produce heterotic hybrids that combine desirable traits as many as
possible or to develop potential recombinant pure lines from segregating generations.

Author Biographies

Chemeda Daba

Bako Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 03, Bako, West Shewa, Ethiopia

Amsalu Ayana

Haramaya University, P. O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Adugna Wakjira

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, P. O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Habtamu Zeleke

Haramaya University, P. O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Published
2019-09-02

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