Effect of Processing Methods and Blending Cereal and Legume Grain on Some Mineral and Sensory Qualities of Weaning Foods

  • Menure Heiru Chemical Engineering
  • Geremew Bultosa Food Science and Technology
  • Geremew Bultosa Food Science and Technology
  • Negussie Bussa Food Science and Post-harvest Technology
Keywords: Keywords: Blending ratio; fermentation; finger millet; groundnut sprouting; teff, mineral contents; roasting, sensory quality

Abstract

Abstract: The most important nutritional problems in weaning foods consumed by infants in many parts
of developing nations including Ethiopia are deficiencies in macronutrients and micronutrients. In view of
this, the effect of processing method and blending of teff, finger millet, and sprouted groundnut on
mineral contents and sensory acceptability of weaning food gruel was investigated. The treatments
consisted of three blends B1 (20% teff + 40% finger millet + 40% groundnut), B2 (30% teff + 30% finger
millet + 40% groundnut) and B3 (40% teff + 20% finger millet + 40% groundnut) and six processing
condition (roasting, fermentation, three duration of sprouting and unprocessed blend as a control). The
experiment was laid out as a Completely Randomized Design (RCD) in a factorial arrangement (3 x 6 = 18
treatments) and replicated three times per treatment. The mineral contents of initial ingredients and
blended samples were analyzed using standard methods. Processing condition had significant (P < 0.05)
effect on mineral and sensory properties of weaning food gruel. On sprouting (groundnut), roasting, and
fermentation, zinc content increased. The highest zinc content (3.86 mg/100 g) was obtained in response
to sprouting groundnut for 12 hr in blend B3 and the lowest was (1.91 mg/100 g) in the control weaning
food B1. The highest iron (32.96 mg/100 g) content was recorded for roasted weaning food of B3, while
the lowest (14.70 mg/100 g) was obtained in the control blend B1. The highest calcium (304.82 mg/100 g)
content was in the roasted weaning food blend B1 and the lowest (110.63 mg/100 g) was in the control
blend B1. Sensory analysis revealed that the most acceptable product was obtained from roasted blends of
weaning food (i.e., color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability scores of 5.36, 5.66, 5.84 and 5.75 on 7-
point hedonic scale, respectively). Overall, the result showed, roasting or fermentation or sprouting of
groundnut (12 to 24 hr and drying the sprout at 50 oC for 20 hr) and blending level at B3 have improved
the nutrient quality and sensory acceptability of weaning food gruel compared to control sample. In the
developing country like Ethiopia factory processed weaning foods are not affordable for majority of the
population, such domestic processing conditions can be promoted at each household to improve weaning
food gruel quality for child of weaning age.

Author Biographies

Menure Heiru, Chemical Engineering

Dire Dawa University, Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, P. O. Box 1362, Dire Dawa,
Ethiopia

Geremew Bultosa, Food Science and Technology

Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Food Science and Technology, Gaborone, Botswana.

Geremew Bultosa, Food Science and Technology

Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Food Science and Technology, Gaborone, Botswana.

Negussie Bussa, Food Science and Post-harvest Technology

Haramaya University, Department of Food Science and Post-harvest Technology, Haramaya, Ethiopia.

Published
2018-11-27