Effect of Mineral Fertilizer, Farmyard Manure, and Compost on Yield of Bread Wheat and Selected Soil Chemical Properties in Enderta District, Tigray Regional State, Northern Ethiopia

  • Beyenesh Zemichael Tigray Agricultural Research Institute, Mekelle Agricultural Research Centre
  • Nigussie Dechassa Agriculture and Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Keywords: Blanket recommended NP (RNP) fertilizer; Compost; Economic analysis; Farmyard manure; NP fertilizer; Bread wheat variety; Triticum aestivum L; Yield

Abstract

Abstract: Soil nutrient depletion as a result of continuous cultivation of the land without adequate addition
of external fertilizer inputs is one of the major problems that constrain the yield of bread wheat and
sustainable productivity of the soil in Tigray Regional State. A field experiment was conducted to elucidate
the effect of mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP), farmyard manure (FYM), and compost on the
productivity of bread wheat and selected soil chemical properties. The treatments consisted of three bread
wheat varieties (Kakaba, Paven 76, and Mekelle I) and eight fertilizer combinations [control (0, 0), blanket
recommended NP fertilizer (RNP) (41 kg N ha-1 + 46 kg P2O5 ha-1), 10 t ha-1 FYM, ½ of RNP (20.5 kg N
ha-1 + 23 kg P2O5 ha-1) + 10 t ha-1 FYM, ½RNP (20.5 kg N ha-1 + 23 kg P2O5 ha-1) + 5 t FYM ha-1, 7 t
compost ha-1, ½ RNP (20.5 kg N ha-1 + 23 kg P2O5 ha-1) + 7 t compost ha-1, and ½ RNP (20.5 kg N ha-1 +
23 kg P2O5 ha-1) + 3.5 t compost ha-1]. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design
in a factorial arrangement and replicated three times per treatment. Data were collected on yield and yield
components of the crop and selected soil chemical properties, namely, contents of soil organic carbon (OC),
available phosphorus (P), total nitrogen (TN), cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil reaction (pH), and
electric conductivity (EC). The results revealed that the yield and yield components of wheat significantly (P
≤ 0.01) responded to application of the fertilizers. Combined application of 10 or 5.0 t ha-1 FYM with half of
the recommended mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (i.e., 20.5 kg N + 23 kg P2O5 ha-1) increased
grain yield of the crop by 185 and 170%, respectively, over the control treatment. Similarly, combined
application of 7.0 or 3.5 t ha-1 compost with half of the recommended mineral nitrogen and phosphorus
fertilizer (20.5 kg N + 23 kg P2O5 ha-1) increased grain yield significantly by 159 and 148%, respectively,
over the control treatment. The highest net benefits of 37290 ETB, 33002 ETB, and 30835 ETB ha-1 with
acceptable marginal rates of return were obtained in response to applying half of the blanket recommended
miner NP fertilizer (½ RNP) ha-1 + 5 t FYM ha-1 to Kakaba, Mekelle I, and Paven 76, followed by
application of the full blanket recommended NP fertilizer (RNP) ha-1 and ½ RNP ha-1+ 5 t ha-1 compost. It
is, thus, concluded that combined application of half of the blanket recommended NP fertilizer (20.5 kg N +
23 kg P2O5 ha-1) with 5 t FYM ha-1or with 3.5 t ha-1 compost led to the most economically optimum bread
wheat yield as well as improved soil physico-chemical properties for sustainable production of the crop in the
future. Analysis of the selected soil chemical properties at harvest indicated that, compared to the available
phosphorus and total nitrogen contents of the soil in plots to which no any fertilizer was applied (control
treatment), the total nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the soil to which 10 t ha-1 FYM and 7 t ha-1
compost were applied increased by about 100% whereas that of organic matter increased by about 300%.
The results indicate that the soils of the study area are deficient not only in mineral nutrients such as nitrogen
and phosphorus but also in soil organic carbon and its constituents that are important to maintain soil quality
and health. This implies that there is a need for judicious soil ameliorative measures using both mineral and
organic fertilizers to enhance productivity of crops in the region.

Author Biographies

Beyenesh Zemichael, Tigray Agricultural Research Institute, Mekelle Agricultural Research Centre

Tigray Agricultural Research Institute, Mekelle Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 498, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia

Nigussie Dechassa, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences

Haramaya University, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, P. O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Published
2018-10-10

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