Role and Problems of Coffee and Enset Dominant Home gardens for Enhanced Livelihood and Food Security in Dilla District, Southern Ethiopia
Abstract: Home gardens are one of the most complex and diverse agroforestry systems in Gedeo, southern Ethiopia and it has played an important role in the improvement of livelihood and food security of households. The study was conducted with the objective of investigating the role and problems of Coffee (Coffea arabica L) and Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) dominated home gardens for improved livelihoods and food security in the study area. A purposive random sampling method was used to obtain a study population of 120 households. Primary data were collected through structured and semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and direct observations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics by generating frequency distribution and percentages. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between household age, educational level, household family size, home garden, and food security indicators. The results revealed that out of a total 75 different plant species, 40% were food crops, 17.3% were cash crops, 13.3% were medicinal plants, 17.3% were plants used as live fence, 20% were plants used for construction and fuel, 10.6% were used for home made furniture and utensils, 4% were used as spices crops, 5.3% were stimulants, 10.6% were used as ornamentals and 20% were used as shade trees. It was found that about 36.2% of the household income was contributed by home gardening in the surveyed area. The Pearson correlation coefficient results have showed that home gardening was positively and significantly correlated with household food security with respect to the number of meals eaten per day (0.281 at P < 0.01), home garden crops owned (0.716 at P < 0.01) and heads of livestock owned (0.223 at P < 0.05). However, no significantly positive correlation was observed between home gardening and household educational level. From the result, it was concluded that majority of plant in home gardens were food crops and contributing for food security. Households, therefore, should be aware and encouraged to use technologies to improve their practice of home gardening to realize food security.
Keywords: Agroforesry; Ensete ventrocosum (Welw.) Cheesman; Coffea arabica L.; Food security; Home garden; Livelihood.
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