Effect of Weed Management Methods and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Southern Ethiopia

  • Tamado Tana
  • Dawit Dalga
  • J.J Sharma


Abstract: Inefficient weed management practices and the use of inappropriate nitrogen fertilizer rates are the major causes of low yield of wheat in Ethiopia. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at Bobicho and Faate in southern Ethiopia to determine the effect of weed management practices and N fertilizer rates on grain yield, N uptake, and N use efficiency of bread wheat. The treatments consisted of a factorial combination of four rates of nitrogen (0, 60, 85, and 110 kg N ha-1) and five weed management practices [two hand weeding at 2 and 5 weeks after crop emergence (WAE), application of pyroxsulam at 20 g ha-1, pyroxsulam at 10 g ha-1 + 2,4-DEE 0.50 kg ha-1, weed free and weedy check] in randomized complete block design with three replications. The interactions of location, N fertilizer rate, and weed management practices significantly (P < 0.01) affected grain yield, nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake, and N use efficiencies of the crop where weedy check had the lowest values. Under both hand weeding and use of herbicides, increasing the nitrogen rates resulted in a significant increase in grain yield, grain and straw nitrogen concentration nitrogen uptake, and apparent nitrogen recovery efficiency at both locations. The highest grain yield, grain nitrogen uptake, total nitrogen uptake and apparent nitrogen recovery efficiency were recorded in the weed free plot with the application of 110 kg N ha-1 at both locations. Aside from the weed free check, combined application of herbicides pyroxsulam at 10 g ha-1 + 2,4-DEE 0.50 kg ha-1 with the application of 110 kg N ha-1 resulted in higher grain yield of 5285 kg ha-1 at Bobicho and 4868 kg ha-1 at Faate with the highest economic advantage at both locations.


Keywords: Hand Weeding; Herbicide Combinations; Nitrogen Uptake; Pyroxsulam, 2; 4-Dichlorophenoxyethylene Ester

Author Biographies

Tamado Tana
School of Plant Sciences, Haramaya University,
Dawit Dalga
School of Agriculture, Maddawalabu University,
J.J Sharma
School of Plant Sciences, Haramaya University


Amanullah, K. L. 2013. Source and rate of nitrogen application influence agronomic N-use efficiency and harvest index in maize (Zea mays L) genotypes. Pakistan Journal of Botany 8 (59): 80 - 89.
Amir, A., Sara, A. and Afrasyab, R. 2012. Study of weed-crop competition by agronomic and physiological nitrogen use efficiency. European Journal of Experimental Biology 5 (4): 960 - 964.
Amsal Tarekegn and Tanner, D. G. 2001. Effects of fertilizer application on N and P uptake, recovery and use efficiency of bread wheat grown on two soil types in central Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources 3 (2): 219 - 244.
Baghestani M. A., Zand, E., Soufizadeh, S., Beheshtian M., Haghighi, A., Barjasteh, A., Birgani D. G. and Deihimfard, R. 2008. Study on the efficacy of weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with tank mixtures of grass herbicides with broadleaved herbicides. Crop Protection 27: 104 - 111.
CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo). 1988. From agronomic data to farmer recommendations: Answers to workbook exercises. Mexico, DF.
Craswell, E. T. and Godwin, D. C. 1984. In: Mangle K. and Kirkby, E. A. 1984. Principles of Plant Nutrition. Panima Publishing Corporation. New Delhi, India.
CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2013. Agricultural sample survey report on area production of crops (private peasant holdings, Meher Season). The FDRE statistical bulletin Vol. 391, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 79 p.
Delogu, G. L., Cattivelli, N., Pecchioni, D., Falcis,T., Maggiore and Stanca, A. M. 1998. Uptake and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter barley and winter wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 9 (1): 11 - 20.
Dobbermann, A. 2005. Nitrogen Use Efficiency State of the Art. IFA International Workshop on Enhanced-Efficiency Fertilizers Frankfurt, Germany, June 28 - 30.
Esheteu Bekele, Ferdu Azerefegne and Tsedeke Abate. 2006. Facilitating the Implementation and Adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Ethiopia: Planning workshop from October 13-15th 2003 at the Melkassa Agricultural Research Center, EARO.
Fageria, N. K., Baligar V. C., Jones, C. A. 2011. Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. 3rd Edn., Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 530 p.
Fageria, N. K. 2014. Nitrogen harvest index and its association with crop yields. Journal of Plant Nutrition 37: 795-810.
Fageria, N. K., and Baligar, V. C. 2005. Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Advances in Agronomy 88: 97 - 185.
Fageria, N. K., de Morais, O. P., and dos Santos, A. B. 2010. Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Upland Rice Genotypes. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33: 1696 - 1711.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2008. FAO fertilizer and plant nutrition bulletin: Guide to laboratory establishment for plant nutrient analysis. FAO, Rome, Italy, 203 p.
Franzel, S., Mulugeta Mekuria and Chicot Yiirga, M. 1987. Smallholder farmers weed problem and control practices in Ethiopia Proceeding of the First Ethiopian Weed Science Workshop EWSE, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp. 21 - 27.
Gholamereza, K., Alireza E., and Javad, M. 2011. Effect of nitrogen on grain yield, grain protein and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat (Tiriticum aestivum L.) cultivar. Pakistan Journal of Soil Sciences 1 (3): 34 - 42.
Haile Deressa, Nigussie Dechassa, and Amsalu Ayana. 2012. Nitrogen use efficiency of bread wheat: Effects of nitrogen rate and time of application. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12 (3): 389 - 409.
Hirel, B., Le Gouis, J., Ney, B. and Gallais, A. 2007. The challenge of improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants: Towards a more central role for genetic variability and quantitative genetics within integrated approaches. Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 2369 - 2387.
Hussain, M. I., Shah, S. H. 2002. Growth, yield and quality response of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties to different levels of N, P and K. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4 (3): 362 - 364.
Julie C., Dawson A., David R., Huggins, B. and Stephen, S. 2008. Characterizing nitrogen use efficiency in natural and agricultural ecosystems to improve the performance of cereal crops in low-input and organic agricultural systems. Field Crops Research 2 (107): 89 - 101.
Kassim Al-Khatib. 2012. Weed Control in Wheat. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Science 3: 81 - 84.
Kelsa Kena, Ejigu Jonfa and Tesfaye Birhanu. 1996. Participatory Soil Mapping and Characterization in Kindo Koysha, Southern Ethiopia, Proceeding of Workshop on Nutrient Cycling and Soil Fertility Management in Ethiopia, 26-November to 2-December 1998, Wolaita Sodo, International Institute for Environmental Development, London.
Kiniry, J. R., McCauley, G., Xie, Y., and Arnold, J. G. 2001. Rice parameters describing crop performance of four U. S. cultivars. Agronomy Journal 93: 1354 - 1361.
Kumbhar, A. M., Buriro U. A., Oad F. C., Chachar, Q.I. and Jamro, G.H. 2007.Yield and N uptake of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different fertility levels and crop sequence. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39 (6): 2027 - 2034.
Legg, J. O., and Meisinger, J. J. 1982. Soil nitrogen budgets, nitrogen balance, and cycle. Agronomy Monograph, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 566 p.
Mahdi, Z., Shole, S. and Sansan, G. 2014. Levels of nitrogen and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron affecting the wheat competitive ability against weeds. Communications in Plant Sciences 4 (3 - 4): 55 - 61.
MoARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). 2010. Animal and plant health regulatory directorate crop variety register. Issue No. 13. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Mohammad, T., Mohammad, J. K., Ahmad, K., Mohammad, A., and Mohammad, S. 2010. Wheat nitrogen indices response to nitrogen source and application time. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42 (6): 4267 - 4279.
Muhammad, A., Asghar, A. and Asif, T. 2006. Effect of Weed Control Methods on Weeds and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)Yield. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38 (1): 173 - 182.
Muhammad, F. K., Gul H., Gulzar A., Sajjad A. and Sajid K. 2013. Comparative Efficacy of Herbicides on yield and yield components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 8 (1):76 - 80.
Muurinen, S. 2007. Nitrogen dynamics and nitrogen use efficiency of spring cereals under Finnish growing conditions. Yliopistopaino 29 (3) : 1 - 38.
Nano Alemu. 2012. Influence of Weed management practices and Nitrogen levels on yield and yield attributes of Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Kulumsa, Southeastern Ethiopia, An M. Sc. Thesis presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Haramaya.
Olsen S. R., Cole, C. W., Watanabe, F. S., Dean, L. A. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorous in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. Soil Science 96: 308 - 12.
Ortiz-Monasterio, J. I., Sayre, K. D., Rajaram, S., Mc- Mahon, M. 1997. Genetic progress in wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency under four nitrogen rates. Crop Science 37: 898 - 904.
Raun, W. R., and Johnson, G. V. 1999. Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agronomy Journal 91: 357 - 363.
Roberts, T. L. 2008. Improving nutrient use efficiency in common wheat. Turk Journal of Agriculture 1 (32): 177 - 182.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Institute. Inc.2008.The SAS System for windows TM. Version 9.2 Cary NC, USA.
Selamyihun Kidanu, Tanner, D. G. and Tekalign Mamo, 2000. Residual effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield and N composition of succeeding cereal crops and on soil chemical properties of an Ethiopian highland Vertisol. Canadian Journal of Soil Sciences 80: 63 - 69.
Sinebo, W., Gretzmacher, R., and Edelbauer, A. 2004. Genotypic variation for nitrogen use efficiency in Ethiopian barley. Field Crops Research 85: 43 - 60.
Tanner, D., Amanuel Gorfu and Asefa Tilahun. 1993. Fertilizer effect on sustainability in the Wheat based smallholder farming systems of southeastern Ethiopia. Field Crops Research 33: 235 - 248.
Tekalign Tadesse. 1991. Soil, Plant, Water, Fertilizer, Animal Manure and Compost Analysis Manual: Plant Science Division Working Document No. 13. International Livestock center for Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Teklu Endale and Hailemariam Tessema. 2009. Agronomic and economic efficiency of manure and urea fertilizers use on vertisols in Ethiopian highlands. Journal of Agricultural Science 8 (3): 352 - 360.
Tesfaye Amare, Sharma, J. J., and Kassahun Zewdie. 2014. Effect of Weed Control Methods on Weeds and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield. World Journal of Agricultural Research 1 (2): 124 - 128.
Tran, T. S., Tremblay, G. 2000. Recovery of N-15-labeled fertilizer by spring bread wheat at different N rates and application times. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 2 (80): 533 - 539.
Zafar, J., Muhammad, F. C. 2007. Effects of soil and foliar application of different concentrations of NPK and foliar application of (NH4)2SO4 on growth and yield attributes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Pakistan Journal of Plant Sciences 13 (2): 119 - 128.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.