Effect of Plant Spacing and Weeding Frequency on Weed Infestation, Yield Components, and Yield of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Eastern Ethiopia

  • Mengesha Kebede Madda Walabu University
  • J.J. Sharma
  • Tamado Tana
  • Lisanework Nigatu

Abstract

Abstract: Common bean is an important food and cash crop in eastern Ethiopia. However, its yield is constrained by weeds. Therefore, this study was conducted in 2012 main cropping season at Haramaya and Hirna research fields, eastern Ethiopia, to determine the effect of plant spacing and weeding frequency on weeds, yield components and yield of common bean. The experiment comprised 18 treatment combinations with three inter- and intra-row plant spacing, respectively, (30 cm × 10 cm, 30 cm × 15 cm, 40 cm × 10 cm) and six weeding frequencies (one weeding by hand- hoeing two weeks after crop emergence, one weeding by hand-hoeing three weeks after crop emergence, one weeding by hand-hoeing four weeks after crop emergence, two weeding by hand-hoeing two and five weeks after crop emergence, weed-free check, weedy check). The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a factorial arrangement and replicated three times per treatment. It was observed that broad-leaved weed species were dominant at both sites with relative density of 61.2 and 73.2% at Haramaya and Hirna, respectively. Interaction of sites, plant spacing and weeding frequencies significantly affected weed density and dry weight. Days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, plant height, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight, grain yield, aboveground dry biomass, and harvest index significantly affected by weeding frequencies. Combination of plant spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm and two weeding by hand-hoeing two and five weeks after crop emergence significantly reduced the weed dry weight by 95.3 and 95.8% at Haramaya and Hirna, respectively, as compared to the same plant spacing with no weeding throughout the season. Common bean plants weeded by hand-hoeing twice two and five weeks after crop emergence flowered significantly earlier next to plants kept weed-free. Significantly higher number of pods per plant, grain yield (2984.0 kg ha-1) and aboveground dry biomass were obtained at Hirna than at Haramaya. However, significantly, higher numbers of seeds per pod and harvest index were obtained at Haramaya than at Hirna. Significantly higher grain yield (2612.2 kg ha-1) and (2718.8 kg ha-1) were obtained from one weeding by hand-hoeing two weeks after crop emergence and two weeding by hand-hoeing two and five weeks after crop emergence next to weed-free check, respectively. However, the economic analysis revealed that the highest net benefit of 15924 ETB ha-1 was obtained in response to combining the spacing of 30 cm × 10 cm with twice weeding by hand-hoeing two and five weeks after crop emergence. It could be concluded that planting common bean plants at the spacing of 30 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants and weeding the crop by hand-hoeing twice at two and five weeks after crop emergence resulted in optimum growth and grain yield of the crop.

 

Keywords: Grain Yield; Hand-hoeing; Harvest Index; Net Benefit; Weed; Weed Dry Weight

Author Biographies

Mengesha Kebede, Madda Walabu University
Madda Walabu University
J.J. Sharma
College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University
Tamado Tana
College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University
Lisanework Nigatu
College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University

References

Abiy G. and Fasil R. 2009. Effect of crop and weed management methods on weed control, productivity and quality of Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ethiopian Journal of Weed Management 3 (1): 1 - 11.
Ahmadi, A., Talarposhti, R. M., Mousavi, S. K. and Mohammadi, H. 2007. Determination of the critical period of weed control in Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using a thermal basis. Iranian Journal of Weed Science 3 (1 & 2): 21 - 38.
Ayaz, S., McNeil, D. L., McKenzie, B. A. and Hill, G. D. 2001. Density and sowing depth effects on yield components of grain legumes. pp. 9 - 15, In: Proceeding of Agronomy Society, New Zealand.
Bethelhem G. 2012. Response of Improved Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)Varieties to Nitrogen Application in Eastern Ethiopia. An MSc Thesis Presented to School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University. 69p.
Blackshaw, R. E., Molnar, L. J., Muendel, H. H., Saindon, G. and Li, X. 2000. Integration of cropping practices and herbicides improves weed management in Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Weed Technology 14: 327 - 336.
Borras, L., Slafer, G. A. and Otegui, M. E. 2004. Seed dry weight response to source-sink manipulations in wheat, maize and soybean: a quantitative reappraisal. Field Crops Research 86: 131 - 146.
Bruin, J. L. D. and Pedersen, P. 2008. Effect of row spacing and seeding rate on soybean yield. Agronomy Journal 100 (3): 704 - 710.
Burnside, O. C. 1979. Soybean (Glycine max) growth as affected by weed removal, cultivar and row spacing. Weed Science 27: 562 - 565.
Chauhan, B. S. and Opeña, J. L. 2013. Effect of plant spacing on growth and grain yield of Soybean. American Journal of Plant Sciences 4: 2011 - 2014.
CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). 1988. From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: An Economics Training Manual. Completely revised edition. Mexico.
Cottenie, A. 1980. Soil and plant testing as a basis of fertilizer recommendations. FAO Soil Bulletin 38/2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Fathi, A. O. E., Khalaf, A. S. and Salim, N. M. 2010. Influence of tillage and weed management methods on chickpea yield and yield components. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science 16 (2): 189 - 198.
Feldman, S. R., Alzugaray, C., Torres, P. S. and Lewis, P. 1997. The effect of different tillage systems on the composition of the seed bank. Weed Research 37: 71 - 76.
Ghadiri, H. and Bayat, M. L. 2004. Effect of row and plant spacings on weed competition with Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 6: 1 - 9.
Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc. Toronto, Canada.
Goulden, D. S. 1976. Effect of plant population and row spacing on yield and components of yield in navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture 4: 177 - 180.
Grafton, K. F., Schneiter, A. A. and Nagle, B. J. 1988. Row spacing, plant population and genotype × row spacing interaction effects on yield and yield components of dry bean. Agronomy Journal 80: 631 - 634.
Gulshan, A. B. and Dasti, A. A. 2012. Role of soil texture and depths on the emergence of buried weed seeds. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 7 (4): 223 - 228.
Hodgson, G. L. and Blackman, G. E. 2005. An analysis of the influence of plant density on the growth of Vicia faba. Journal of Experimental Botany 48: 147 - 165.
Holmes, R. C. and Sprague C.L. 2013. Row width affects weed management in type II Black Bean. Weed Technology 27(3): 538 - 546.
Howe, O. W. I. and Oliver, L. R. 1987. Influence of soybean (Glycine max) row spacing on pitted morning glory (Ipomea lacunose) interferences. Weed Science 35: 185-193.
Ihsanullah, F., Hayat, T., Habib, A., Abdul, B. and Noor, U. 2002. Effect of row spacing on agronomic traits and yield of Mung Bean [Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek]. Asian Journal of Plant Science 1: 328-329.
Khalil, S. K., Wahab, A., Rehman, A., Muhammad, F., Wahab, S., Khan, A. Z., Zubair, M., Shah, M. K., Khalil, I. H. and Amin, R. 2010. Density and planting date influence on phenological development assimilate partitioning and dry matter production of faba bean. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42 (6): 3831 - 3838.
Khan, F. S., Zammurad, I. A., Muhammad, A. and Hussain, S. 2008. Response of Mung Bean genotypes to rhizobium inoculum and varying levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 21: 1 - 4.
Körner, C. 2006. Significance of temperature in plant life. pp. 48-66. In: James, I. L., Morison and Michael D. Morecroft (eds.), Plant Growth and Climate Change. Black well Publishing Ltd.
Malik, V. S., Swanton, C. J. and Michaels, T. E. 1993. Interaction of White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars, row spacing, and seeding density with annual weeds. Weed Science 41 : 62-68.
Mandefro N., Anteneh G., Chimdo A. and Abebe K. 2009. Improved technologies and resource management for Ethiopian Agriculture. Rural Capacity Building Project Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Melaku W. 2008. A Preliminary Guide to Plant Collection, Identification and Herbarium Techniques. The National Herbarium Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Mengesha K., Sharma, J. J., Tamado T. and Lisanework N. 2013. Influence of weed dynamics on the productivity of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Eastern Ethiopia. East African Journal of Sciences 7 (2): 109 - 120.
Meseret N., Tadesse B. and Teshome B. 2008. Effect of frequency and time of hand weeding in haricot bean production at Bako. Ethiopian Journal of Weed Management 2: 59 - 69.
Minotti, P. L. and Sweet, R. D. 1981. Role of crop competition in limiting losses from weeds. pp. 351 - 367. In: Pimentel, D. (ed.), CRC Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture. Boca Raton, Florida.
Mitiku W., Sharma, J. J., and Lisanework N. 2012. Competitive effect of Parthenium weed on yield and yield components of Common Bean. Ethiopian Journal of Weed Management 5: 1 - 11.
Mukhtar, A. M. 2012. Critical period of weed interference in irrigated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Dongola area. Journal of Science and Technology 12 (3): 1 - 6.
Murdock, E. C., Banks, P. A. and Toler, J. E. 1986. Shade development effects on pitted morning-glory (Ipomoea lacunosa) interference with Soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Science 34: 711 - 717.
Page, E. R. and Willenborg, C. J. 2013. Dynamics and management of crop-weed interference. Prairie Soils and Crops Journal 6: 24 - 32.
Prakash, V., A. K., Pandey, Singh R. B. and Mani, V. P. 2000. Integrated weed management in garden pea under mid-hills of North-West Himalayas. Indian Journal of Weed Science 32 (1-2): 7 - 11.
Rashid, A., Khan, R., Marwat, S. 2009. Importance of weed control in chickpea under rainfed condition. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science 5 (4): 456 - 459.
Redden, R. J., Usher, T., Younger, D., Mayer, R., Hall, B., Fernandes, A. and Kirton, D. 1987. Response of navy beans to row width and plant population density in Queens land. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 27: 455 - 463.
Rezene F. and Kedir N. 2008. Review of weed research in highland and lowland pulses. pp. 133-165, In: Abraham Tadesse (ed.) Increasing Crop Production through Improved Plant Protection Volume I. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia (PPSE), 19 - 22 December 2006, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2003. SAS Version 9.1 © 2002-2003. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Shahidullah, M. and Hossain, M. M. 1987. Influence of inter-and intra-row spacing of soybean on yield and its components. Bangladesh Journal of Science 22: 1 - 7.
Sharma, G. D., Sharma, J. J. and Sood, S. 2004. Evaluation of alachlor, metolachlor and pendimethalin for weed control in rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in cold desert of North-Western Himalayas. Indian Journal of Weed Science 36: 287 - 289.
Sharma, S. K. 2002. Effect of sowing time and spacing levels on seed production of pea cultivar Arkel. Seed Research 30 (1): 88 - 91.
Singh, B. G. and Rao, G. R. 1992. Physiological effect of pre-emergence herbicides in Mung Bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Annaals of Agricultural Sciences 13: 401 - 403.
Singh, G., and Sekhon, H. S. 2013. Integrated weed management in Pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9 (1): 86 - 91.
Stroud, A. and Parker, C. 1989. A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Tamado T. and Milberg, P. 2000. Weed flora in arable fields of eastern Ethiopia with emphasis on the occurrence of Parthenium hysterophorus. Weed Research 40: 507 - 521.
Tekalign T. 1991. Soil, Plant, Water, Fertilizer, Animal Manure and Compost Analysis. Working Document No. 13. International Livestock Research Center for Africa, Addis Ababa.
Tenaw W. 2014. Legume-based cropping for sustainable production, economic benefit and reducing climate change impacts in southern Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural and Crop Research 2 (1): 11 - 21.
Tenaw W., Beyenesh Z. and Waga M. 1997. Effect of variety, seed rate and weeding frequency on weed infestation and grain yield of haricot bean. Arem 2 & 3: 61 - 69.
Tepe, I., Erman, M., Yergin, R. and Bukun, B. 2011. Critical period of weed control in chickpea under non-irrigated conditions. Turk Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 35: 525 - 534.
Tilahun T. 1998. Weed competition study on haricot bean in the sub-humid zone of Jimma. Arem 4: 61 - 68.
Turk, M. A. and Tawaha, A. R. M. 2002. Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Minpr) in the absence of moisture stress. Biotechnology and Agronomy Society of Environment 6 (3): 171 - 178.
Williams, C. F., Crabtree, G., Mack, H. J. and Laws, W. D. 1973. Effect of spacing on weed competition in Sweet Corn, Snap Beans and Onions. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 98: 526 - 529.
Yayeh B., Fekremariam A., Oumer B. 2014. Effect of plant spacing on the yield and yield component of Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) at Adet, North Western Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 3 (5): 368 - 373.
Published
2015-01-01

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.