Bottom Sediment Chemistry, Nutrient Balance, and Water Birds in Small High Altitude Tropical Reservoirs in the Rift Valley, Kenya
Abstract: Water bird characteristics, nutrient loadings, and the levels of bottom sediment silicon oxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), calcium oxide (CaO), copper (Cu), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon (C) was studied in eight high altitude (2040-2640m) small shallow (0.065-0.249 km2; 0.9-3.1 m) reservoirs in the central rift valley of Kenya. The general aim was to assess the nature of the bottom sediments in relation to nutrient balance in the water bodies and their birdlife from a geographic perspective of spatial comparative analysis. The findings showed positive correlation between the levels of SiO2, CaO and P with the levels of total-N and total-P. In addition, there was an inverse correlation between C, Al2O3, Cu andFe2O3 in the bottom sediment and two nutrients. A total of six water bird counts across the eight sites recorded 49 species for all the reservoirs and an overall average of 60 individuals per reservoir. The counts of nine water bird species were established to increase significantly with increase in the levels of total-N and total-P. The results indicated a correlation with the levels of SiO2, C, P, Fe2O3, and CaO in the bottom sediment for 12 water bird species, namely, African Fish Eagle, African Jacana, Black-headed Heron, Brack Crake, Common Teal, Great Egret, Great White Pelican, Grey Crowned Crane, Knob-billed Duck, Purple Gallinule, Ringed Plover, and Yellow-billed. The most sensitive species were the African Fish Eagle, Brack Crake, Common Teal, Great White Pelican, and Purple Gallinule. The actual impact of sediment chemistry on the utilization of reservoirs by water birds was not established and should, therefore, be an important subject for further investigation.
Keywords: Bottom Sediments; Total-N; Total-P; Tropical Reservoir; Waterbirds
Barko, J. W., Gunnison, D. & S. R. Carpenter 1991. Sediment interactions with submersed macrophyte growth and community dynamics. Aquatic Botany 4 1 :41 - 65.
Daldorph, P. & R. Price 1994. Long term phosphorus control at three eutrophic reservoirs in southeastern England. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 40 : 231 - 243.
Duffy, W. G. & D. J. LaBar. 1994. Aquatic invertebrate production in southeastern USA wetlands during winter and spring. Wetlands 14 (2): 88 - 97.
Forsberg, C. & S-O Ryding 1980. Eutrophication parameters and trophic state indices in 30 Swedish waste receiving lakes. Arch. Hydrobiol. 89: 189 - 207.
Gautam, B. & B. Bhattarai. 2008. Seasonal Changes in Water Quality Parameters and Sediment Nutrients in Jagadishpur Reservoir, a Ramsar Site in Nepal. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 9: 149 - 156.
Grobbelaar, J. U. and W. H. House 1995. Phosphorus as a limiting resource in inland waters; interactions with nitrogen - In: ICSU-SCOPE (1995): Phosphorus in the global environment. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
Gwiazda, R., Jarocha, K. & E. Szarek-Gwiazda 2010. Impact of a small cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) roost on nutrients and phytoplankton assemblages in the littoral regions of a submontane reservoir, Biologia 65 (4): 742 -748.
Harper, D 1992: Eutrophication of freshwater - principles, problems and restoration. Chapman & Hall, London.
Harper, D. M., Phillips, G, Chilvers, A, Kitaka, N. & K. Mavuti 1993. Eutrophication prognosis for Lake Naivasha.Verh.Internat.Verein.Limnol. 25: 861 - 865.
Hillbricht-Ilkowska, A., Ryszkowski, L. and A. N. Sharpley 1995. Phosphorus transfers and landscape structure: riparian sites and diversified landuse patterns - In Tiessen, H.: Phosphorus in the global environment. ICSU-SCOPE Report No. 54 John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
Howard-Williams, C., Esteves, F., Santos, J. E. & M. T. Downes 1989. Short term nitrogen dynamics in a small Brazilian wetland (Lago Infernao, Sao Paulo). Journal of Tropical Ecology 5:323 - 335.
ICOLD 1998. World Register of Dams. ICOLD, Paris.
Ismail, W. R. & S. A. M. Najib 2011. Sediment and nutrient balance of Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak (Malaysia). Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 16: 179 - 184 (Bukit Merah Reservoir in Malaysia).
Kalff, J. 1983. Phosphorus Limitation in Some Tropical African Lakes. Hydrobiologia 100: 101 - 112.
Keller, B. E. M., Lajtha, K. & S. Cristofor 1998. Trace metal concentrations in the sediments and plants of the Danube Delta, Romania. Wetlands 18 (1): 42 - 50.
Litterick, M. & K. M. Mavuti 1985. The MacVuti sampler: A new and inexpensive volume sampler for plankton and water. Freshwater Biology 15: 465 - 466.
Mackereth, F. J. H., J. Heron and J. F. Talling 1989. Water Analysis: Some Revised Methods for Limnologists. Freshwater Biological Association. Scientific Publication No. 36, Cumbria.
Melack, J. M. 1995. Transport and transformations of P, fluvial and lacustrine ecosystems - In Tiessen, H: Phosphorus in the global environment. ICSU-SCOPE Report No. 54 John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
Mhlanga, L 2001. Water Quality and Nutrient Fluxes within the Zambezi River System: A Review. In Arthurton, R. S., Kremer, H. H., Odada, E., Salomons, W. and J. I. M. Crossland (eds) - Afribasins - LOICZ Global Change Assessment and Synthesis of River Catchment-Coastal Sea Interaction and Human Dimensions, LOICZ, Texel.
Mwaura, F, Koyo, A. O. & B. Zech. 2004. Cyanobacterial blooms and the presence of cyanotoxins in small high altitude tropical headwater reservoirs in Kenya. Journal of Water and Health 2 (1):49 - 67.
Newcombe G., House J., Ho L., Baker P, & M. Burch (2010). Management Strategies for Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) and their Toxins: a Guide for Water Utilities. Research Report 74, Water Quality Research Australia.
Pacini, N. 1994. Coupling of land and water: phosphorus fluxes in the Upper Tana River Catchment, Kenya. Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Leicester University.
Rumble, M. & L. Flake 1982. A comparison of two waterfowl brood survey techniques. Journal of Wildlife Management 46: 1048 - 1053.
Sahrawat, K. L. 2004. Iron toxicity in wetland rice and the role of other nutrients. J. Plant Nutr. 27:1471 - 1504.
Segersten, J. 2010. Characterization of sediments in two Mauritian freshwater reservoirs. M.Sc thesis, Uppsala University.
Søndergaard, M., J. P. der Jensen & E. Jeppes. 2003. Role of sediment and internal loading of phosphorus in shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia 506 - 509 : 135 - 145, 2003. (waterbodies in Temperate regions).
Small, H., Ligeza, S., Baran, S., Wójcikowska-Kapusta, A. & R. Obroślak 2013. Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Bottom Sediments of Two Small Dam Reservoirs. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. Vol. 22 (5) : 1479 - 1489.
Thapa, J. B. & T. Bahadur 2012. Water Quality Parameters and Bird Diversity in Jagdishpur Reservoir Nepal. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 13 (1) : 143 - 155.
Thompson, A. O. 1962. Geology of the Kijabe area.Ministry of Natural Resources, Mines & geological Department, Nairobi.
Tiessen, H. 1995. Phosphorus in the global environment. ICSU-SCOPE Report No. 54 John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
Tundisi, J. G. 1993. The environmental impact assessment of lakes and reservoirs, In: Salanki J. & V. Istvanovics Limnological bases of lake management. Proceedings of the ILEC/UNEP International Training Course.Tihany, Hungary 24 May - 5 June 1993. ILEC, Shiga.
Vikhristyuk, L. A. and O. E. Varlamova (1994). Phosphorus in Bottom Sediments of the Kuibyshev Reservoir. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih.Ergebn.Limnol. 40: 21-26.
Vitousek P. M, Aber J. D., Howarth R. W., Likens G. E., Matson P. A., Schindler D. W., Schlesinger W. H., Tilman D. G. (1997). Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. EcolAppl 7 (3): 737 - 751.
Williams, J. G. & Arlott 1980. A field guide to the birds of East Africa. Collins, London.
Xie F., Wu F., Liu G., Mu Y., Feng C., Wang H. & J. P. Giesy. 2014. Removal of Phosphate from Eutrophic Lakes through Adsorption by in Situ Formation of Magnesium Hydroxide from Diatomite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48: 582 - 590.
WWF. 1999. A place for dams in the 21st century? WWF, Gland.