The Potential of Coffee Husk and Pulp as an Alternative Source of Environmentally Friendly Energy

  • Weldemedhin Merete Ministry of Environment and Forest
  • Alemayehu Haddis Jimma University
  • Esayas Alemayehu Jimma University
  • Argaw Ambelu Jimma University

Abstract

In Ethiopia enormous amounts of coffee husk and pulp are generated anually from coffee processing industries. However, they have been poorly utilized or left to decompose or otherwise dumped in the environment. Therefore, this research was conducted at Teppi and Limu coffee farms in Ethiopia to produce briquettes from coffee husk and pulp. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the energy potential of briquette produced from coffee husk and pulp and characterize their fuel properties. The coffee husk and pulp were carbonized in an oxygen-deficient environment separately by using carbonizing kiln at Jimma Agricultural Mechanization Research Centre. Then the carbonized materials were ground to fine particles and mixed with a binder and converted to briquettes by using a briquette extruder machine. Triplicate samples of the briquettes were sent to Geological Survey of Ethiopia for analysis. The calorific value of the briquettes produced from coffee husk and pulp ranged between 5041.1±168.60 and 4037.6±219.39cal/g, respectively. Further analysis showed that through conversion of the coffee husk and pulp in to briquette, annually the two farms could generate 1.3×1013cal of energy and substitutes 5,284.35 m3 of firewood or save 52.84 to 66.05 ha of tropical forests from deforestation. The results of the study have shown that briquettes produced from coffee husk have more positive attributes than briquettes produced from coffee pulp at both farms. It is concluded that briquettes produced from coffee husk and pulp could be used as an alternative source of energy and waste management option.
Keywords: Briquette; Carbon Sequestration; Coffee Husk; Coffee Pulp

References

Abakr, Y. A. and Abasaeed, A. E. 2006. Experimental evaluation of a conical-screw briquetting machine for the briquetting of carbonized cotton stalks in Sudan. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 1: 212 – 220.
Abebe Beyene, Yared Kassahun, Taffere Addis, Fassil Assefa, Aklilu Amsalu, Worku Legesse, Helmut Kloos and Ludwig Triest. 2011. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices. Environ Monit Assess 184:7053 - 7063.
Aina O, Adetogun A, and Iyiola K. 2009. Heat Energy from Value-Added Sawdust Briquettes of Albiziazygia.Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management 2: 42 - 49.
Akowuah, O.A. Francis, K and Stephen, J. M. 2012. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering 3:20.
Alemayeu Haddis and Rani Devi. 2007. Effect of effluent generated from coffee processing plant on the water bodies and human health in its vicinity. Journal of Hazardous Materials 152: 259 - 262.
Ciubota-Rosie, C. Gavrilescu, M. and Macoveanu, M. 2008. Biomass – An important renewable source of energy in Romania. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 5: 559 - 568.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1987. Simple technologies for charcoal making. FAO Forestry Paper 41, Rome, Italy.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1999. The role of wood energy in Africa. Definitions, Conventions and Conversion Factors Applied, Appendix 1, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/docrep/x2740e/x2740e05.htm (Accessed on August 21, 2013).
Grover, P. D. and Mishra, S. K. 1996. Biomass briquetting: technology and practices. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, regional wood energy development programme in ASIA GCP/RAS/154/NET. Field Document No.46 Bangkok, Thailand.
Haykiri-Acma, H. and Yaman, S. 2010. Production of Smokeless Bio-briquettes from Hazelnut Shell.Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science Vol II, 20-22, October 2010, San Francisco, USA. (http://www.iaeng.org/publication/WCECS2010/WCECS2010_pp739-741.pdf) (Accessed on August 21, 2013). Livinngston, B. and Babcock, M. 2006. Work shop on Ash related issues in biomass combustion workshop, 21 September 2006, Marriot Hotel, Glasgow, Scotland.
Oladeji, J. T. 2010. Fuel Characterization of Briquettes Produced from Corncob and Rice Husk. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 11: 101 - 106.
Onchieku J. M., Chikamai B. N. and Rao M. S. 2012. Optimum Parameters for the Formulation of Charcoal Briquettes Using Bagasse and Clay as Binder. European Journal of Sustainable Development 1, 3, 477 - 492.
Onuegbu, T. U., Ogbu, I. M. and Ejikeme, C. 2012. Comparative analyses of densities and calorific values of wood and briquettes samples prepared at moderate pressure and ambient temperature. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 2: 40 - 45.
Pari, G., Hendra, D., Setiawan, D., Saepuloh, M., Soleh, D., Ali, M., Miyakuni, K. and Ishibashi, N. 2004. Charcoal production for carbon sequestration. Demonstration Study on Carbon Fixing Forest Management in Indonesia.
Sayakoummane, V. and Ussawarujikulchai, A. 2009. Comparison of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Briquette and Wood Charcoal in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. Environment and Natural Resources Journal 7: 12 - 24.
Sotannde, O.A., Oluyege A.O., and Abah, G.B. 2010. Physical and combustion properties of charcoal briquettes from neem wood residues.Int. Agrophysics 24:189-194.
Suhartini, S., Hidayat, N. and Wijaya, S. 2011. Physical properties characterization of fuel briquette made from spent bleaching earth. Biomass and Bioenergy. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.07.002.
Taylor, E. T and Nakai, S. 2012. Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9: 2252 - 2265.
Wessapan, T. Somsuk, N. and Borirak, T. 2010. Design and Development of a Compact Screw-Press Biomass Briquetting Machine for Productivity Improvement and Cost Reduction. The First TSME International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, 20 - 22 October 2010, Ubon Ratchathani.
Terakunpisut, J., Gajaseni, N. and Ruankawe, N. 2007. Carbon sequestration potential in aboveground biomass of Thong PhaPhum National Forest, Thailand.Applied ecology and environmental research 5: 93 - 102.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 2010. Biomass Briquetting in Sudan: A Feasibility Study Women’s Refugee Commission.
Volkmann, J. 2008. Assessment of Certification Options for Wild Forest Coffee in Ethiopia CoCE Project Report Sub-project 5.4.
Wondwossen Bogale. 2009. Preparation of charcoal using agricultural wastes. Ethiopian Journal of Education & Science 5: 77 - 91.
Yared Kassahun Kebede, Tesfu Kebede, Fassil Assefa and Aklilu Amsalu. 2010. Environmental impact of coffee processing effluent on the ecological integrity of rivers found in GommaWoreda of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Journal of Ecology and Hydrology 10: 259 - 270.
Yisehak Seboka. 2009. Bio-carbon Opportunities in Eastern and Southern Africa, Charcoal production: Opportunities and barriers for improving efficiency and sustainability. United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, USA, New York.
.