Soil Fertility in Koka Nagawo Area of Lumme District in East Shoa Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia

  • Haile Negash Mizan-Tepi University
  • Muktar Mohammed Haramaya University

Abstract

For designing proper soil fertility management interventions, locally specific information on physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils is indispensable. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the spatial variability in the fertility status of soil of Koka Nagawo area of Lumme District in East Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, based on selected soil physico-chemical properties. Eleven land units were delineated and mapped based on their soil color, slope, drainage, and soil management practices which were assumed to cause variability in soil fertility status among the land units. Eleven composite surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected randomly from each land unit and selected soil physico-chemical properties determined in the laboratory. The results of the study revealed that the soils of all land units on rain-fed agriculture (land units 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, and 11) had a clay loam texture but the soil of all land units on irrigated agriculture in floodplain (land units 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10) had a clay texture. The highest bulk density (1.38gcm-3) was recorded for land units 1 and 3 and the lowest (1.16gcm-3) was recorded for land units 4 and 10. The percent total porosity of all the land units was found to be very high. The pH values ranged from slightly alkaline to moderately alkaline for all land units. Land units 4 and 10 had high organic matter contents and land units 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 had moderate organic matter contents whereas the remaining land units had low organic matter contents. Available P contents of the soils from land units 1, 2, 3, 7, 8 and 11 were medium whereas those of the soils from land units 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10 were high. The cation exchange capacity of the soils of the area ranged from 28.66 to 52.26 cmol(+)/kg soil, which is rated as high and very high, respectively. Exchangeable Ca was very high in irrigated floodplain land units but high in land units of rain-fed agriculture. Exchangeable Mg was high in the land units 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10, medium in land units 7 and 8, low in land units 1, 2, and 11, and very low in land unit 3. All the land units of the area revealed very high exchangeable K contents. Exchangeable Na contents of soils were high in all land units except for land unit 8, which was medium. The values of percent base saturation ranged from high to very high except for land unit 3 which was medium. Generally, the extractable micronutrient cations (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe) contents of the soils were found to be at critical levels, below which crops may suffer from deficiency of the nutrients, and low for all land units except land unit 7 which had a high Fe content. The soils of the study area showed potentially rich physical fertility and exchangeable bases except for Mg in some land units of rain-fed agriculture but poor chemical fertility such as alkalinity and low availability of most of the micronutrients. In addition, all land units of rain-fed agriculture low contents of soil organic matter and total N except land units 7 and 8. It could be concluded that the soils of the study areas have no limitation in terms of physical condition as well as availability of cations, but are constrained by low contents of micronutrients and soil organic matter. Therefore, soil fertility management practices in the areas should focus on improving mitigating the high soil pH and increasing the availability of micronutrients and the content of soil organic matter.
Keywords: Floodplain; Physico-chemical Properties; Soil Fertility Assessment

References

Abdenna, D., Fite, G., and Wakene, N. 2007. Influence of small scale irrigation on selected soil chemical properties. Proceedings of the second conference of utilization of diversity in land use systems: Sustainable and organic approaches to meet human needs. October 9 - 11, 2007 Witzenhausen, Germany.
Ahmed, H. 2002. Assessment of Spatial Variability of Some Physcio-chemical Properties of Soils under Different Elevations and Land Use Systems in the Western Slopes of Mount Chilalo, Arsi. (Unpublished MSc thesis), Alemaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
Baker, M. R., C. Nys and J. F. Picard, 1997. The effects of liming and gypsum application on a sessile oak (Quercuspetraea) stand at Larcroix- Scaille (French Ardennes). I. Site characteristics, soil chemistry and aerial biomass. Journal of Plant and Soil. 150: 99-108.
Bandel, V. A., James, B., Meisinger, J. J. 2002. Basic Principles of Soil Fertility. II. Soil properties. University of Maryland, MD, USA: College of Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Behailu, B. 2007. Impact of Industries and Urbanization on Water Resource in Modjo River Catchment (Published M.Sc thesis). Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Birru, Y. 1999. Phosphorus Status and Sorption Characteristics of the Soils of the North-western Highlands of Ethiopia. (Unpublished MSc. thesis) Alemaya University, Alemaya Ethiopia.
Black, C. A, 1965. Methods of soil analysis. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Part I, American Society of Agronomy. 157p.
Blake, G. R. 1965. Bulk Density. pp. 374-399. C.A. Black (Ed). Methods of soil analysis Agron. Part I, No. 9.Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Bohn, H. L., B. L. McNeal and G. A. O’Connor, 2001. Soil Chemistry 3rd Edition. New York USA: John Willey and Sons Inc.
Bouyoucos, G. J. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for particle-size analysis of soils. Agron. J. 53: 464-465.
Brady, N. C. and R. R. Weil, 2002. The Nature and Properties of Soils 13thEdition. New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall. Inc.
Chapman, H. D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity by ammonium saturation. In C.A. Black (Ed.) Methods of soil analysis pp. 891-901. Wiscisin, USA: Agron, Madison.
Chhabra, G., P. C. Srivastava, D. Ghosh and A. K. Agnihotri. 1996. Distribution of available micronutrient cations as related to soil properties in different soil zones of Gola-Kosi inter basin. Journal of Crop Research-Hisar. 11(3): 296-303.
Debela, H. Feyissa, Jasse T. Njoka, Zemede, A. and M.M. Nyangito. 2011. Soil physico-chemical properties of semiarid Ethiopia in two land use system: implication to crop production. International Journal of Agricultural Research. 6(12):840-847.
Duff, B., P. E. Rasmussen and R. W. Smiley, 1995. Wheat/fallow systems in semi-arid regions of the Pacific, north-west America. In: Barnett, V. Payne, R. and Steiner, R. (Eds). Agricultural Sustainability: Economic, Environmental and Statistical Considerations. pp. 85-109. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
EMA (Ethiopian Mapping Authority). 1975. National Atlas of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Eyasu, E. 2002. Farmers Perception of Soil Fertility Changes and Management. Institute for Sustainable Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), 2006. Scaling soil nutrient balances. Fertilizer and plant nutrition bulletin. No15. FAO, Rome, Italy.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2006a. Plant Nutrition for Food Security: A guide for integrated nutrient management. FAO, Rome.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2006b. Guidelines for soil description. FAO, Rome.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). 2006c. Guidelines for soil profile description. Soil Resources, Management and Conservation Service, Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome.
Fisseha, I. 1992. Macro- and micronutrients distribution in Ethiopian Vertisols landscapes. (Published doctoral dissertation) Doctoral thesis. Institute fur Bondenkunde und Standortslehre, University of Hohenheim, Germany, p. 201.
Foth, H. D. 1990. Fundamentals of Soil Science 8th Edition. New York,USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Foth, H. D. and Ellis, B. G. 1997. Soil Fertility. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Grace, P. R., J. M. Oades, H. Keith and T. W. Hancock, 1995. Trends in wheat yields and soil organic carbon in the permanent rotation trial at the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, South Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 35: 857-864.
Havlin J. L., Beaton J. D., Tisdale S. L., Nelson W. L. 1999. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. New Jersely, USA: Prentice Hall. Inc pp. 345-355.
Hazelton, P. and B. Murphy, 2007. Interpreting soil test results: What do all the numbers mean? (2nd Edition). CSIRO Publishing. 152p.
He, Z. L. Alva, A. K. Calvert, D. V. Li, Y. C. and Banks, D.J. 1999. Effects of nitrogen fertilization of grape fruit trees on soil acidification and nutrient availability in a Riviera Fine Sand. Journal of Plantand Soil 206: 11-19.
Heluf, G. and Wakene, N. 2006. Impact of land use and management practices on chemical properties of some soils of Bako area, Western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources. 8 (2): 177-197.
Jackson, M. L. 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of Indian Pvt. Ltd. P 498.
Jones, J. Benton. 2003. Agronomic Hand Book: Management of crops, soils and their fertility. Washington, USA: CRC Press.
Juo, A. S. R., K. Franzlucbbers, A. Dabiri and B. Ikhile, 1996. Soil properties and crop performance on a kaolinitic Alfisol after 15 years of fallow and continuous cultivation. Journal of Plant and Soil 180: 209-217.
Khalifa, E. M., M. A. El-Desoky, M. A. Gameh and M. E. Faragallah, 1996. Status of some micronutrients and their relations to mineral composition of the Nile valley desert interference zone soils, East of Assiut city. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences 27(3): 107-127.
King, R. B. and Birchall, C. J. 1975. Land systems and soils of the Southern Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Land Resource Report. Ministry of Overseas Development, Land Resources Division.
Lindsay, W. L. and Norvell, W.A. 1978. Development of DPTA soil test for zinc, copper, iron and manganese. Journal of American Soil Science Society. 42: 421-428.
Makin, M. J., Kingham, T. J., Waddams, A. E., Birchall, C. J., and Teffera, T. 1975. Development prospects in the southern Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Ministry of Overseas Development, Land Resource Study, 21, LRD, Surbiton.
Mebit, K. 2006. Physico-Chemical Properties and Classification of Soils along the Toposequence at Woreta Agricultural Technical Vocational Education and Training College Research Farm, Ethiopia (Published MSc. thesis). Alemaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
Mesfin, A. 1996. The Challenges and Future prospects of Soil Chemistry in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the third conference of the Ethiopian Society of Soil Science. February 28-29, 1996 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ethiopian Society of Soil Science.
Mesfin, A. 1998. Nature and Management of Ethiopian Soils. Alemaya University of Agriculture, Ethiopia.
Mohammed, A. 2003. Land suitability evaluation in the Jelo Catchment, Chercher Highlands, Ethiopia (Published doctoral dissertation) Doctoral thesis. University of Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S. and Dean, L. A. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA circular 939. 1-19p.
Paulos, D. 1996. Availability of phosphorus in the coffee soils of southwest Ethiopia. In: Tekalign Mamo and Mitiku Haile (Eds.). pp. 119-129. Soil: The Resource Base for Survival. Proceeding of the second Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Soil Science (ESSS), 23-24 September 1993, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ponnamperuma, F. N. 1972. The chemistry of submerged soils. Journal of Advance Agronomy. 24:29-40.
Regis V. 1998. Micronutrients. Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011, p. 69.
Richards, J. E., T. E. Bates and S. C. Steepard, 1995. Change in the forms and distribution of soil phosphorous due to long- term corn production. Canada Journal of Soil Science 72: 311-317.
Rowell, D. L. 1994. Soil science: Method and applications. England: Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Saggar, S., K. R. Tate, C.W. Feltham, C. W. Childs and A. Parshotam, 1994. Carbon turnover in a range of allophonic soils amended with 14C-labelled glucose. Journal of Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 1263-1271.
Saggar, S., A. Parshotam, G. P. Sparling, C. W. Feltham and P.B.S. Hart, 1996. 14C-labelled ryegrass turnover and residence times in soils varying in clay content and mineralogy. Journal of Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 1677-1686.
Saikh, H., Varadachari, C. and Ghosh, K. 1998b. Effects of deforestation and cultivation on soil CEC and contents of exchangeable bases. A case study in Simplipal National Park, India. Indian journal of Soil science.204: 67-75.
Singh, M and G. S. Sekhon, 1993. DPTA extractible micronutrient cations in some bench mark soil series of India. Indian Journal of Soil Science 41:566-568.
Singh, H., Sharma, K. N. and Aroa, B. S. 1995. Influence of continuous fertilization to a maize system on the changes in soil fertility. Journal of Fert. Res. 40: 7-19.
Taye, K., Mesfin, A. and Paulos, D. 2003. Contribution of organic amendment to physico-chemical conditions of coffee nursery media. Proceedings of the 6th conference of Ethiopian Society of Soil Science. February 28- March 1, 2002. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ethiopian Society of Soil Science.
Tekalign, M. and I. Haque, 1991. Phosphorus status of some Ethiopian soils, II. Forms and distribution of inorganic phosphates and their relation to available phosphorus. Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 68: 1: 2-8.
Tekalign Tadesse. 1991. Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis. Working Documnt NO 13. International Livestock Research Center for Africa (ILCA), Addis Ababa.
Uehara, G. and Gilman, G. 1981. The mineralogy, chemistry and physics of tropical soils with variable charge clays. Westview Tropical Agricultural Series, Boulder, Colorado, 4: 170.
UNDP and FAO, 1984. Geomorphology and soils of Ethiopia. Assistance to land use planning. FAO, Rome. 248p.
Wakene, N. 2001. Assessment of important physicochemical properties of Dystric Udalf (Dystric Nitosols) under different management systems in Bakoarea, Western Ethiopia (Published MSc thesis). Alemaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
Wakene, N. and Heluf, G. 2003. Forms of phosphorus and status of available micronutrients under different land-use systems of Alfisols in Bako area of Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources. 5(1): 17-37. Walkley, A. and I. A. Black, 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Journal of Soil Science 37: 29-38.
Werner M. R. 1997. Soil Quality characteristics during conversion to organic orchard management. Journal of Soil Ecology 5:151-167.
Wondimagegne, C. and Abere, M. 2012. Selected Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Soils of the Middle Awash Irrigated Farm Lands, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Science. 22:127-142.
Yadav, B. K. 2011. Micronutrient status of soils under legume crops in arid region of western Rajasthan, India. Journal of Plant Science. 4 (3): 94-97.