Adaptation of Food Oat (Avena sativa L.) Genotypes in Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Background: Oat is one of the soil acidity tolerant crops among cereal crops. In Ethiopia, However, it is mainly cultivated for animal feed using local cultivars with poor agronomic and soil management practices in soil acidity prone areas.
Objective: There are a lot of improved and commercial oat varieties released by European countries that are recommended for both food and feed. Therefore, the study was conducted to identify high-yielding and disease-resistant oat genotypes in acid soil highland areas of Amhara region.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Adet, Banja, Fajie, Farta, Geregera, Sekela, Sekota and Sinan in the Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. Thirteen introduced food oat genotypes and one local cultivar as a check were used as experimental treatments. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with three replications.
Results: The combined analysis of variance showed significant (P≤0.05) differences for grain yield and yield related traits of among genotypes, environments, and their interactions. The combined grain yield performance range was 3904 kg/ha to 3045 kg/ha in food oat genotypes. Food oat genotypes G4, G5, G10, G2, G13, G8 and G12 showed higher interaction to the environmental factors and also higher in grain yielding performance than the remaining tested oat genotypes across the tested environments. Therefore, these genotypes are relatively wider in adaptation across the tested environments. However, food oat genotypes only Goslin (G4) and Souris (G12) were more both widely adaptable and resistance to oat diseases over the local cultivars.
Conclusion: Among the 13 introduced food oat genotypes, Goslin (G4) and Souris (G12) were higher in grain yield performance, with a grain yield advantage of 26.93% and 18.16% and resistance to oat diseases over the local cultivars. Therefore, Food oat genotypes Goslin (G4) and Souris (G12) should be demonstrated and scaled out in soil acidity prone high land areas of Banja, Fajie, Farta, Geregera, Sekela and Sinan districts and in areas with similar agro-ecologies of Ethiopia.