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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • Manuscripts should be written in US English and consecutively paged
  • The manuscript has not been previously published, nor under consideration for publication in another journal.
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word (97- 2013) format
  • The text is double-spaced; uses a 12-point font (Garamond); should not exceed 25 pages including tables, figures and illustrations.
  • Manuscripts should have A4 size paper; a margin of 2.5 cm on the left, right, top and bottom side of each page.
  • Headings and subheadings should be in title case; bold and numbered
  • Only International System of Units (SI) is acceptable. Symbols and nomenclatures should conform to international recommendations with respect to specific fields of specialization.

Author Guidelines

East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS)
Haramaya University, Ethiopia
Guide for Authors

1. Aims
The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) is a peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary scientific journal published biannually by Haramaya University, Ethiopia.

2. Scope
The journal publishes high quality original research papers in agricultural sciences, natural sciences, environmental sciences, social sciences, veterinary sciences, and other related disciplines. It also publishes review articles, short communications, and registration of newly released crop varieties and other technologies as well as creative works. The journal provides a platform for disseminating scientific and technical
information and exchange of knowledge among scientists engaged in research and development in the world.

3. Types of Article
3.1. Research papers
Research papers published by the East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) are mainly full-length original research papers that have not been published previously. A fulllength research paper submitted to EAJS should emanate from experimental work, observational studies, case studies, critical reviews, meta-analysis, and theoretical work.
The research paper should contain 3000 to 7000 words from introduction to conclusion section (excluding the reference list), and should include six to eight tables and figures combined. Research papers to be published in the EAJS should contain a total number of references ranging from 30 to 40. A research paper should be prepared following the IMRAD (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion) format. Details of
each section are separately presented in Section 4.7.

3.2. Short communications
Short communication articles, which are written to disseminate interesting trends and results that have not yet been conclusively proven, may be submitted to EAJS. A short communication article submitted to EAJS should be concise containing 1500 to 3000 words from introduction to conclusion section (not including references) (about 5 to 8 double-spaced text pages). A short communication should contain no more than four figures and/or tables combined. A short communication article should be prepared in the same format as a full-length research paper. The work reported has to be technically sound, innovative, and significantly unique, advancing the state of the art. It should also contain no more than 20 references. The minimum number of references should be 10.

3.3. Review articles
The East African Journal of Sciences accepts review articles, which are written to sum up the current state of research on a particular topic, in which authors engage with a scholarly source, usually journal articles, by reporting their main ideas, claims, positions, or findings, and the reasoning which supports these ideas, and by critiquing them. The review article should not exceed 10,000 words from introduction to the conclusion section (not including references). Thus, a review article could be longer than a research paper, but its length may be subject to the discretion of the Editor. A review article should also end in new hypotheses, and speculations on how they may be tested.
A review article should not contain more than eight tables and figures combined. It should also contain no more than 120 references. A similar format used for writing research papers may be followed for writing a review article. However, authors should write review articles by greatly expanding the introduction and discussion sections. Note that EAJS may solicit review articles from senior and experienced authors by
invitation through its Editorial Board.

3.4. Registration of crop varieties, other technologies, and creative works
Registration of crop varieties can be considered provided that all of the following conditions are met:
 A letter of confirmation from the host institute(s) stating that the variety has been developed and officially released by the applying author(s) and institute(s);
 Confirmation of registration in the Variety Registration Catalogue (relevant document) of the pertinent organization or country;
 The release of the variety and its official registration in the country should have occurred not earlier than two years ago, due respect to information age;
 Written descriptions of the released variety (including morphological, agronomic, genetic, agro-ecological, environmental and other descriptors) should be submitted on double spaced 4 to 5 pages; and
 The paper should contain title, author(s), affiliations, abstract, keywords, introduction, origin and pedigree, analyzed results and discussion on the varietal evaluation and/or testing, agronomic and morphological characteristics, yield performance, stability of performance/adaptation, reaction to major diseases/pests, quality attributes, conclusion and implications, acknowledgement(s), and references.

Registration of other technologies (new or modified) should also meet the following conditions:
 Letter of confirmation from the host institute(s) stating that a technology has been developed by the applying author(s) and institute(s);
 Letter of acceptance of the technology (new or modified ones) by a National Intellectual Property Rights Protection Agency;
 Description of a technology (including modifications made to improved ones) should be provided briefly in double spaced 5 to 8 pages; and
 The paper should contain title, author(s), affiliations, abstract/executive summary, keywords, introduction, purposes of innovation or modifications made to it (if improved technology), performance/efficiency evaluation, cost analysis, comparative advantages compared with existing ones, general benefits to the
public, conclusion and recommendation, acknowledgements, and references.

Submission of original creative works: Creative works are major written or recorded original creative works that are publicly and commercially distributed. For example, they include new and original computer software, engineering innovations, analytical models, etc. that are used to solve immediate problems of the society as well as those that have valuable analytical and artistic merits. Submitted creative works should meet the following conditions:
 A letter of confirmation of the work created from the pertinent organization, (university, research institute, technical schools, etc.) to which the owner of the work is affiliated;
 The work should be a substantial creative or scholarly work which is separately bound/packaged and offered for sale or distribution under the name of the pertinent organization or the creator; and
 The creative work must be accompanied by a written catalogue identifying the work.

4. Conditions for Submission
Manuscripts of any type should be written in clear, concise and grammatically correct English, which can be understood by those outside the authors’ areas of specialization. Either British or American English spelling should be used and not a mixture of the two. Passing through English language edition is highly encouraged before submission.
Submission of a manuscript to EAJS implies a commitment and consent of all authors to publish it. Only manuscripts which have not been previously published, and are not currently under review for publication by another journal are accepted (for details, please, refer to journal’s editorial policy).

4.1. Format for preparing research manuscripts
Authors should prepare research manuscripts in the IMRAD format. Papers should be written in MS-word, Times New Roman and font size of 12, with margins of 2.5 cm at the top, bottom, and sides of each page. The number of text words in the manuscripts (excluding the reference list) should not be more than 7,000. Manuscripts should not exceed the length of 25 pages (double-spaced), including tables, figures and illustrations. Tables and figures could be integrated in the text or placed at the end of the manuscript following the reference section, each on a separate page of an A4 size paper.
Use the automatic page numbering function and the page number should appear at the bottom center of the page throughout the manuscript. Indentations, line breaks, section breaks and unnecessary spaces in the text are not allowed; paragraphs should be justified. Authors should avoid excessively long sentences and are also encouraged to write shorter paragraphs, for easy and understandable reading. For a detailed method of how tables and figures should be prepared, refer to Section 5. Headings and subheadings should be in a title case, bold and numbered consecutively. Equations should be editable in the document.

4.2. Sub-headings
Authors should divide their articles into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc.), 1.2, etc. The abstract should not be included in section numbering. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

4.3. Abbreviations
Avoid using abbreviations (including acronyms), formulae, symbols, and jargons in the title and abstract of a paper. If the use of a few standard abbreviations such as DNA, RNA, and ATP is a must, spell them out on the first mention. In all other parts of the paper, abbreviations should be defined at the first mention and used consistently thereafter throughout the manuscript. Abbreviations used in a table or a figure should be defined in the table footnote or in the figure legend. Note that this rule does not apply for abbreviations of scientific units of measurements such as cm, m, km, etc.

4.4. Writing styles (scientific styles, numbers and punctuation marks) Scientific styles:
 Authors are encouraged always to use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (SI units). All common names of organisms (with the exception of crops) should be qualified at the first mention by the full Latin name and authority. All pesticides should be referred to by their common names; and genus
and species names should be italicized.

 Authors should spell out single-digit whole numbers (one to nine) in text except when they are followed by units of measurements and except when they are numerals of 10 and above. The same holds true when using ‘‘-fold’’ to describe a magnitude of response, e.g. sevenfold (one word), not 5-fold; but 19-fold (not ‘‘nineteen-fold’’).
 However, in a mixed series containing some numbers more than 10 and others less, authors should use numerals throughout: 2 goats, 5 horses, and 25 cows.
 Use a word at the beginning of a sentence, not a numeral. Thus, do not start a sentence with ‘‘50% of the seedlings’’; write ‘‘Fifty percent of the seedlings’’. In addition, use numerals when units of measurements are included: 2 g (not two g), 5 m (not five m), etc.
 Write 12 333, instead of twelve thousand-three-hundred-and-thirty-three.
 Fractions of numbers such as one-fourth(1/4); one-half(1/2); two-thirds(2/3), etc should be expressed in words if they appear at the beginning of a sentence. When expressed with decimal points (0.25, 0.50, 0.67), these fractions should be treated just like any other number with a decimal point in tables, and have to be
accompanied by relevant units if used in the text.
 In the case of large numbers, group five or more digits in blocks of three, divided by single spaces or by using a comma. Example: write 5000; 40 000; 70 000 000 with a space only or with a comma 5,000; 40,000; 70,000,000. Thus, five or more digits should be written with a space or a comma before the last three digits:
e.g., 54 662 or 54,662; 432 765 or 432,765; 4 357 869 or 4,357,869, etc. Apply this consistently before the decimal marker (in case a decimal number is used). Example, write 54 321.12345 or 54,321.12345.
 Write four and less digit numbers without a space and a comma, unless they form part of tabulation. Example, in text, four-digit numbers (1000 to 9999) should be written without any space, comma, or period (1267, 3492, etc.). However, in a table or column with various values, four-digit numbers should be written with a space before the last three digits. Example, 3 000; 3 000 000; 30 000 000, etc. In a text, use a word to replace several zeros. Thus write 30 million instead of 30 000 000. Similarly, units should be adjusted for numbers
less than one to avoid a string of zeros after the decimal point (25 mg instead of 0.025 g or 0.000 025 kg).
 For ranges of numbers, write inclusive numbers in full to avoid ambiguity. Example, 2007–2013 (instead of 2007–13.

Punctuation marks:
 Use a hyphen after the unit when it is an adjective. Example, a 12-month study.
 Use an en dash (–), not a hyphen (-), between two numbers in a table or a figure, which usually indicates a range (i.e. 12–16 means 12 to 16). However, in a text, write as 12 to 16.
 A negative exponential should be used instead of a slash (/) as in a/b. Thus, write values as 100 kg ha–1 (instead of 100 kg/ha) or 20 ml L–1 (instead of 20 ml/L), 10 g m–2 (instead of 10 g/m2), etc.
 There should be a space between a number and a unit that follows it, e.g., 50 kg, 41.1 kg ha–1, 52.4 mm, 10 d, and 20 g, 2 mol L–1 KCl, 0.05 M KCl, etc.
 While writing probability level (P) with the ‘‘<”, “>’’, and “=” symbols, give space after those symbols (P < 0.05 level, P > 0.05 and P = 0.05).
 There are some SI units that are extensively used in science such as ‘‘y’’ or ‘‘yr’’ (for year; SI unit: ‘‘a’’ for annum), and (for ton; SI unit” t”: Mg for megagram). Authors may use these non-SI units or the corresponding SI units. However, authors should give equivalent SI units for traditional non-SI units (e.g., quintal, which means 100 kg) should be converted to an SI unit such as kg or ton, etc.
 Use parentheses ( ) as one way of referring to tables, figures and probability levels. Example, application of the fertilizer had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on the yield of the crop (Table 3); the number of fruit flies that infested the oranges increased in response to the rising temperature (Figure 4), etc.
 To avoid having round brackets one within the other, use square bracket [ ].
 Do not use full stops to mark capitalized abbreviations or acronyms. Example, write FAO, NGO, GMO, not F.A.O., N.G.O., G.M.O., etc.
 Do not use full stops for abbreviations that are known as suspensions. Example, write Ms, Mrs, BSc, MSc, Dr, PhD, etc, not Ms., Mrs., B.Sc., M.Sc., Dr., Ph.D., etc.
 However, use full stops after abbreviations formed by cutting off the end of the word, except after abbreviations of units. Example, write Fig. (for figure); Sun. (for Sunday); Jan. (for January); Prof. (for professor); etc.
 Use a hyphen to join two or more words together to form a compound word. Example, a two-week study, large-sized fruit, etc.
 Instead of a hyphen, use an en dash (–) to signal a span or a link without any space between the en dash and the linked numbers or words. Example, the results are discussed on pages 45–53; the fertilizer–insecticide interactions resulted in higher yield; etc.
 To signify a minus sign in a mathematical statement, use the en dash (–) with a space between the en dash and each of the numbers joined. Example, write Height = 30.7 m – 7.2 m = 23.5 m or Height = (30.7 – 7.2) m = 23.5 m.
 Put a space between the symbol °C for degree Celsius and the number. But do not put any space between the percent symbol % and a number. Example, the mean temperature of the study site is 18.6 °C (instead of 18.4°C), and the mean yield obtained from the treated plots exceeded the yield obtained from the control plots by 80% (not 80 %).

4.5. Footnotes
Footnotes can be used to provide additional information. Table footnotes should be indicated by superscript lower-case letter(s) (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body. Footnotes should also be well defined and placed at the end of each respective table. The same could be done for figure legends and authors of the manuscript.

4.6. Permissions
Authors wishing to include figures, tables and photos that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copy right owner(s), and to include evidence(s) that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Also, a proper citation of such sources is required. Any material received
without such evidence(s) will be assumed to originate from the authors, and the authors are responsible for any consequences.

4.7. Ethical responsibility
The journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. All authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results, which could damage trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the scientific arena. Read more about maintaining integrity of scientific research and rules of good scientific practices.

4.8. Parts of a research paper
A full-length research paper contains the following major sections in the order given here: Title page, Abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements and References. Results and discussion can be written either together or separately.

4.8.1. Title page
A concise and informative title of the manuscript should appear on this page. The Title page also contains other essential components. Author names and affiliations
Immediately under the title, write the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author. Make sure that all names are accurately spelled. Next, provide the affiliation(s) of the author(s) (where the actual work was done). Write the affiliations with a lowercase superscript letter(s) immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the e-mail address of each author, the telephone number, fax (if available), the full postal address of each affiliation, and name of the country. Corresponding author
Authors should clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication as well as post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries. Authors should ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up-to-date by the corresponding author. Running title
Next, include a short version of the main title as the running title, whose length should not exceed the 50–60 characters with space.

4.8.2. Abstract and keywords
The abstract should be written as a short and informative mini-paper (250–300 words). It should stand on its own giving information on the core contents of the paper. The abstract should not contain non-standard or uncommon abbreviations. But if the abbreviation is standard and unavoidable, it should be spelled out at the first mention.
It should not refer to research that is not in the paper or to any other reference material. The abstract should have a structured layout in that it is written by clearly informing readers on the core contents of the paper under the sub-headings of background (problems and rationale), objective(s), material and methods, results (main ones), the conclusions and implications.
Immediately after the abstract, list a maximum of 6 keywords/phrases that are the most important specific terms explaining the results of the study. Do not include very general terms such as “tree” or “soil” or “potato”, etc. Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (for example, 'and', 'of'). Also, avoid abbreviations but abbreviations firmly established in the field may be listed. Do not list in the list of keywords words that are already in the title.

4.8.3. Introduction
The introduction should be written focusing on background information, statement of the problem, brief review of the work done on the topic, gaps to be bridged, justification or rationale (hypothesis) for the study, and objective(s) of the study. The introduction section is written in both present and past tenses mixed as the case may be.

4.8.4. Materials and methods
This section should be written in such a way that it provides a concise description of the experimental site (for experimental field sites), materials used for the study (plant, animal, crop, instruments, equipment, etc.), treatments used, experimental design and replications, research procedures, data collection, statistical data analysis, analytical theories and methods, etc. Authors should generally provide sufficient details to allow
the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher.
Authors should summarize methods that are already published and indicate by a reference. If they quote directly from a previously published method, authors should use quotation marks and also cite the source. If there are any modifications to existing methods, the detailed procedures should be described both for the new and the modified ones. The materials and methods section should be written in the past tense.

4.8.5. Results
This section should present and describe the results or findings obtained with a logical flow. The results should be presented in text, figures or illustrations, and tables. All three forms may be used, but the same data should not be repeated in more than one form. If applicable, describe the main statistically significant findings of the results. If an author has a separate results section, present the results with no interpretation and discussion. In this case, interpretations, implications and reasoning are given under the discussion section. Sub-headings could be used to present separate sections of the results. The results section should be written in the past tense.

4.8.6. Discussion
In this section, the authors should highlight, interpret, and explain the reasons and implications of the results. The section should also include logical comparisons of the results with findings of related previous research. Authors should discuss possible reasons if results of previous research do not agree with that of their own. Authors should not repeat individual statistics or numbers in the text of the discussion, which are already shown in the tables or figures. They should highlight the overall results or trends shown, and interpret and discuss them in relation to the questions or hypotheses set out in the introduction. Authors should not also repeat in this section what has already been said the introduction section. The discussion section can be written in both present and past tenses mixed as the case may be.

4.8.7. Conclusion(s) and recommendation(s)
In a separate sub-heading one paragraph at the end of the discussion, authors should write a conclusion by recapitulating the objectives of the study briefly, indicating the major findings, interpreting them, indicating the implications, and briefly suggesting future lines of research in the area based on findings and gaps they have.
4.8.8. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest Author(s) should disclose all financial/employment/intellectual property rights/other relevant interest that may influence the study. Author(s) must disclose all relationships
or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. If no conflict exists, the author(s) should state as “declare that they have no conflict of interest” at this section.

4.8.9. Changes to authorship
Authors should consider carefully and agree on the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and approved for publication. To request such a change, the Editor must receive in writing the reason for the change and confirmation (e-mail or letter) from all authors
that they agree on the request. In case of addition or deletion of author names, written confirmation (e-mail or letter) is required from the author whose name is to be added or deleted. While the Editor is considering the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended.

4.8.10. Acknowledgement(s)
In this section, bodies or individuals that granted money to support either the research or the authors of the paper or both should be acknowledged. In addition, technical help and advice from others should be acknowledged. Individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, data arrangement and analysis, writing assistance or proof reading of the article, etc.) should be acknowledged. Authors should also acknowledge the source of special equipment, facility, cultures, or other materials.
Funding from external projects should comply with funder's requirements. For example, you may write as “This research was supported by the SIDA-SAREC (grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; Wageningen University [grant number zzzz]”, etc. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other
research institutions, authors should provide the name of the institute or organization that provides the funding.

4.8.11. Appendices
Any additional information that is thought to be relevant for the full understanding of the research work, but is too bulky and complex to be included in the main text of the paper, may be added as an appendix. If there is more than one appendix, authors should identify them as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering as Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. This is done in the same way for tables and figures as Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

4.8.12. References
Authors should make sure that every reference cited in the text is also listed in the reference list and vice versa. Listing unpublished results and personal communications in the reference list is not accepted. However, mentioning them in the text is possible. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Citation in the text
The East African Journal of Sciences follows the Name and Year system (Harvard system) of citation. Accordingly, citations in the text should be written as follows:
The first author’s last name and year of publication are given in parentheses in the text, and the list is arranged in alphabetical order. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author and the date of publication. For example,
 Single author: the author's last name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication. For example, (Richard, 2013) or ... Richard (2013).
 Ethiopian names are usually made up of first name (author’s name), second name (father’s name), and third name (grand father’s name). For Ethiopian authors who use their first and second name, the citation should be written with the full first name (author’s name) and second name (father’s name), followed by a comma
and year. For example, (Bekele Wondimu, 2016) or Furno Bullo (2018), etc.
 When a cited paper has two authors, names are always cited. For example, George and Kuma (2018) or … (George and Kuma, 2018), etc.
 When a cited paper has three or more authors, it should be cited as (Joseph et al., 2012) or … Joseph et al. (2012), etc.
 Groups of references should be listed first chronologically then, alphabetically. For example, ... (Fikru Megersa et al., 2005; Dmeke Yirgu et al., 2007; CABI, 2009; Fikru Megersa, 2010; James et al., 2015) or …. (James, 2002; Fekede Belete and Wassu Tesfu, 2019; Kebede Roba et al., 2019) or … Gudero (2009) and Kefelegn Tezera (2020) reported that …
 If the publication by different authors is made in the same year, sequence alphabetically by authors names. For example, several previous studies also reported the importance of …. (Badebo Tuba, 2010; Chala Tola et al., 2010; Dawson et al., 2010; Dechassa Bonsa, 2010; Dejene Worku et al., 2010; Nega Kinfu and Ahmed Tusso, 2010; Urge Tumsa et al., 2010).
 When there is more than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year, identify them by the letters a, b, and c, etc., placed after the year of publication. For example, … (Barnabas, 2010a; Branabas, 2010b: Branabas, 2010c) or …(Barnabas, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c), etc.
 When the reference contains more than one author with the same last name (father’s name for Ethiopian authors) and publication year, the initials of the authors’ given names (the initial of the grand father’s name for Ethiopian authors) should be included in the citation. For example, … (Gordon, B., 2008), … (Gordon, N., 2008) or … (Fekede Girma B., 2012), … (Fekede Girma K., 2012), etc.
 If there are additional references by the same author(s), the names are not repeated but the dates are separated by commas. For example, … (Chen et al., 1972, 1974) or … Kebede Tufa (2009, 2011), etc.
 While listing names with prefixes such as ‘‘de,’’ ‘‘van,’’ ‘‘von,’’ and so on, use the form in which the name is listed by the author concerned, or follow the journal’s directives.
 If the author is an organization, the name may be abbreviated in the text citation. However, the full name and abbreviation must be provided in the reference list. For example, Central Statistical Agency (CSA), 2018) …. first encounter. …(CSA, 2018) …. in the next time throughout the manuscript.
Note: When it is not possible to see an original document, cite the source of your information; do not cite the original assuming that the secondary source is correct. Reference list
Ensure that all references cited in the text are listed in the references section, and vice versa. Each entry of the reference list should begin with the author and date, and the entries arranged alphabetically by author and date.

Author list
The first author’s name is usually inverted (that is, the surname or family name appears first) and alphabetized, and given names (first names) are usually abbreviated to initials separated by a space. For Ethiopian names, the full names should be written as indicated in the text citation without the need for inversion, followed by the year. The alphabetization should also follow the same pattern. If necessary, it is also determined by letter-by-letter alphabetical sequencing of the initials of the first author and the beginning letters of any subsequent authors’ surnames (second names). The names of all authors, including initials, should be provided. Order references by the same author(s) by year in ascending order.
When initials have been used for an organization as the in-text reference, order the reference by the full name, not the initials – so that in the list, CSA (Central Statistical Agency). Note that the name is not inverted and leading articles (such as A or The) should be omitted.
Details of reference list could be prepared in the following forms with indentations (use single tab stops for indents, not the space bar):

Journal articles (with or without volume and/or issue number) :
Bolger, A.M., Lohse, M. and Usadel, B. 2014. Trimmomatic: A flexible trimmer for Illumina 554 sequence data.  Bioinformatics, 30: 2114–2120.

Wassu Mohammed. 2016. Specific gravity, dry matter content, and starch content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties cultivated in Eastern Ethiopia. East African Journal of Sciences, 10(2): 87–102.

Merga Jibat, Habtamu Terefe and Eshetu Derso. 2018. Integrated management of bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Southwestern Ethiopia. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 51(15-16): 834–851.

Kaufert, J.M., O’Neil, J.D. and Koolage, W.W. 1991. The cultural and political context of informed consent for Native Canadians. Arctic Medicinal Research, 181–184.

Journal articles in a supplement:
Kaufert, J.M., O’Neil, J.D. and Koolage, W.W. 1991. The cultural and political context of informed consent for Native Canadians. Arctic Medicinal Research, Supplement, 181–184.

Frumin, A.M., Nussbaum, J. and Esposito, M. 1979. Functional asplenia: demonstration of splenic activity by bone marrow scan. Blood, 59, Supplement, 1: 26-32.

Articles published online only or online ahead of placement in an issue:
Girmay Aragaw, Alemayehu Chala and Habtamu Terefe. 2019. Spatial distribution and association of factors influencing sorghum anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) epidemics in Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Pest Management, https://doi:10.1080/09670874.2019.1668075.

Savage, E., Ramsay, M., White, J., Beard, S., Lawson, H., Hunjan, R. and Brown, D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: Observational study. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119. Accessed on 31 May 2005.

Organizations as authors:
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1992. Ethiopia: Livestock Development Sector Project. Report No.107/92. FAO, Rome, Italy. Pp. xx.

CSA (Central Statistics Agency). 2017. The federal democratic republic of Ethiopia central statistical agency agricultural sample survey 2016/17. Report on area and production of major crops. Statistical Bulletin, 584. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp. xx.

Book or book chapter with or without edition:
Van de Velde, R. and Degoulet, P. 2003. Clinical Information Systems: A Component-based Approach. Springer, New York. Pp. xx.
Agrios, G.N. 2005. Plant Pathology. 5th edition. Academic Press, New York. Pp. xx. Schott, J. and Priest, J. 2002. Leading Antenatal Classes: A Practical Guide. 2nd edition. Books for Midwives, Boston. Pp. xx.
Sorenson, A. 1993. IPM and growers: An evolution in thinking. Pp. 129–150. In: Leslie, A.R. and Cuprus, G.W. (eds.). Successful Implementation of Integrated Pest Management for Agricultural Crops. Lewis Publishers, USA.
Luckmann, W.H. and Metcalf, R.L. 1982. The pest management concept. Pp. 1–31. In: Metclaf, R.L. and Luckmann, W.H. (eds.). Introduction to Insect Pest Management. 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Goldhagan, J.L. 2000. Child health in the developing world. Pp. 11–14. In: Behrman, R.E., Kliegman, R.M. and Jenson, H.B. (eds.). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 16th edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.
Goldhagan, J.L. 2000. Child health in the developing world. Pp. 11–14. In: Behrman, R.E. (ed.). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 16th edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Edited book:
Leeper, F.J. and Vederas, J.C., editors. 2000. Biosynthesis: Polyketides and Vitamins. Springer, New York. Pp. xx.
Leeper, F.J., editor. 2000. Biosynthesis: Polyketides and Vitamins. Springer, New York. Pp.xx.

Proceedings and papers in proceedings:
Callaos, N., Margenstern, M., Zhang, J., Castillo, O. and Doberkat, E.E., editors. 2003. Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics. 27–30 July 2003, International Institute of Informatics and Systematics, Orlando. Pp. xx.
Fernández-Aparicio, M. and Rubiales, D. 2007. Beneficial effects of intercrops with oat in reduction of chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) infection in faba bean in an organic farming system. Pp. 45–46. In: Østergárd, H., Backes, G. and Kovács, G. (eds.).
Varietal Characteristics of Cereals in Different Growing Systems with Special Emphasis on Below Ground Traits. Proceedings of the COST SUSVAR Workshop. 29 May – 01 June 2007, Velence, Hungary.

An unpublished thesis or dissertation should be included in the reference list. However, the work should be identified as a dissertation or thesis. The name of the academic institution should replace that of the publisher.
Furno Workneh. 1999. Genetic diversity of false banana in Ethiopia: Resource for food and nutrition security in the future. PhD Dissertation, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. Pp. xx.
Mesfin Tadele. 1982. Studies on sorghum shoot fly, Antherigona voria soccata Rondani (Dipt: Muscidae) with special reference to its biology and control measures. MSc Thesis. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. Pp. xx.

References from websites
Authors should provide the website’s full URL with the date when the reference was last accessed. They should also provide any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.

FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). 2000. Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to Ethiopia. FAOIWFP, Rome. http://www. fao.org/GIEWS. Accessed on 21 July 2009.
Hawthorne, W.A., Bretag, T., Raynes, M., Davidson, J.A., Kimber, R.B.E., Nikandrow, A., Matthews, P. and Paull, J.G. 2004. Faba bean disease management strategy for southern region GRDC 2004. Pulse Australia.
www.sardi.sa.gov.au/_data/assets/pdf_file. Accessed on 27 November 2014.

Report (optional):
Reference list for report(s) could be made as format for a book reference with the institution or organization in place of the publisher. Include the report series and number, if available.
Feller, B.A. 1981. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD), National Center for Health Statistics (US).
Report No. VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88-228622.

Publications with more than six authors:
If a publication is contributed by more than six authors, list the first five, followed by a comma and et al.
Nakato, G.V., Beed, F., Bouwmeester, H., Ramathani, I., Mpiira, S., et al. 2016. 638 Building agricultural networks of farmers and scientists via mobile phones: case study of banana 639 disease surveillance in Uganda. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 38: 307–316.

You may refer a material other than the aforementioned lists. During this time, you may use other standards in the author guidelines of advanced journals related to sciences.

5. Tables and Figures
Tables and figures must be relevant to the article and referred to in the text in order. Tables should present new information rather than merely duplicating what is reported in the main text, and should follow standard templates and are submitted as editable text, not as images. Each table should have an explanatory caption and each column an appropriate heading. Words or numerals should be repeated on successive lines; do not use ditto marks. Commas should not be used to indicate numerical values. Tables should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text. Use Arabic (1, 2, 3 …) numbering instead of Roman (I, II, III …) numerals. Tables should have 3-4 horizontal lines separating top and bottom of column headings, and bottom of a table plus additional line separating mean and/or total values from the main data set in the Table. Vertical lines should not be used or visibly seen to separate columns; instead extra space should be left between the columns. Tables larger than A4 in length can be placed at the end of the text file next to the reference; and cite and indicate where the table should appear at the relevant location in the text.
Figure captions should be descriptive enough to understand the content by the reader without cross referencing the main text, usually at the bottom of the figure. Figures should be of high quality that could be saved in either format (TIFF, JPEG, PNG, CDX, PS or EPS). If there are several related photographs or drawings or illustrations, assemble them into a composite figure, and label each component as A, B, C, etc., give a general title and describe each panel (A, B, C, etc.) separately. Figure legends should provide enough information for the figure to be understandable without frequent reference to the text. Lines of both horizontal and vertical axes of figure should be thick (bold) enough to make it clearly visible at printing.
Number the figures according to their sequence in the text using Arabic numerals. Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration. Also, all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure that have not been defined elsewhere should be defined. Note that it is essential that the photographs submitted be of the highest quality to permit the best reproduction.

6. Avoiding Plagiarism
Authors should avoid plagiarism at all cost by recognizing originators of ideas through citations in addition to paraphrasing their phrases in a what that fits their own discussion. Authors are encouraged to read editorial policy of the journal for details of plagiarism.

7. Submission of Manuscript
Submissions, which do not adhere to the guideline of the journal, would be returned to the author(s). A soft copy of a manuscript, along with a cover letter confirming that it describes original research not submitted for publication or already published elsewhere, can be submitted online through www.haramayajournals.org to the Editorial Office of the East African Journals of Sciences, Haramaya University, or via email address at aueastjs@gmail.com. A complete mail, fax, telephone and e-mail address of author(s), preferably the corresponding author, is mandatory. Once a manuscript is accepted, a soft copy of the revised version of it should be sent to the Editorial Office through e-mail. The Editorial Office is not responsible for any loss or damage to manuscripts that might happen during submission; and hence, authors are advised to
retain original copy of their manuscripts.

8. Peer Review
The EAJS operates a blind review system. All manuscripts will undergo a preliminary assessment by the Editor before being subjected to a peer-review process. Manuscripts that are deemed publishable after undergoing and passing through the review process are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers. The reviewers will assess the scientific merit of the manuscripts and give their feedback. Based on the feedback, the Editorial Office of the journal will make the final decision of accepting or rejecting the reviewed manuscripts. You may refer the editorial policy of the journal for more information.

9. Proof Reading
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables, figures and illustrations. Substantial changes in the content (new results, corrected values, title and authorship) are not allowed without the prior approval of the editorial manager. 10. Publication Fee
The journal does not charge any publication fee for accepted manuscripts.

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