Magnitude of Camel Hydatidosis, Associated Risk Factors and its Economic Significance at Jigjiga Municipal Abattoir, Eastern Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to April 2018 at Jigjiga municipal abattoir to assess the status of hydatidosis, determine its associated risk factors, characterize the cyst and estimate the annual financial loss due to organ condemnation in camels. Out of 415 slaughtered camels examined for the presence of hydatid cysts in the visceral organs, 78(18.79%) harbored visible hydatid cysts. The odds at which cysts detected were higher (p<0.05) in old aged camels (≥10 years) (AOR 8.8, 95% CI: 2.92-26.64) and nearly four times higher in medium aged camels (6-9 years) (AOR 4.14, 95% CI: 1.37-12.56) than camels aged ≤5 years. No significant variation was observed in relation to sex of camels (p>0.05). Occurrence of hydatidosis was significantly associated with body condition score of camels (p<0.05). Camels with poor and medium body condition were nearly seven times (AOR 7.04, 95% CI: 3.21-15.42) and more than two times (AOR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.46-4.74) more likely to harbor hydatid cysts than camels with good body condition scores, respectively. A total of 134 cysts were collected and the organ level distribution of the cysts were 55.2% (74/134), 40.32% (54/134), 3.73% (5/134) and 0.75% (1/134) in lung, liver, spleen and kidney, respectively. Among the total 134 cysts collected, 36.6% (49/134) were calcified while the rest 63.4% (85/134) were non-calcified. Among those non-calcified cysts, 35.3% (30/85) were fertile containing protoscoleces while the remaining 64.7% (55/85) were sterile. Among the 30 fertile cysts; 53.3% (16/30) were viable while 46.7% (14/30) non-viable. Of the total 85 non-calcified hydatid cysts evaluated for size, 40% (34/85), 38.8% (33/85) and 21.2% (18/85) were small, medium and large, respectively. Assessment of annual financial loss due to hydatidosis in camels slaughtered at Jigjiga municipal abattoir as a result of offal condemnation was estimated at 142,133.55 Birr (5214.95 USD) per annum (1$(USD) = 27.255ETB). The result showed that hydatidosis is one of the common diseases causing organ condemnation and financial loss to the butchers at Jigjiga. Hence, we suggest prohibition of backyard slaughter, creation of public awareness and control of stray dogs in order to reduce infection by the parasite.