Sero-surveillance of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Six Selected Districts of East and West Hararghe Zones of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to February 2019 to estimate the seroprevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and to evaluate the exact picture and distribution of CCPP in selected districts of East and West Hararghe Zones in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling method was implemented to select districts, peasant associations (villages), and households. The peasant associations (PAs) within the selected six districts were the primary sampling unit and the flock per household was used as a secondary sampling unit, meanwhile the individual goats with no history of CCPP vaccination and aged above six months were the third sampling unit. A total of 960 blood samples were collected from goats and the resultant sera were screened for the presence of antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The result showed that 93 (9.7%: 95% CI= 7.9% - 11.7%) goat sera were positive for CCPP. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of CCPP between the study districts (χ2 = 59.3758; p < 0.001). The highest prevalence (22.95%) was observed in Gumbi-Bordede district, followed by Midhaga-Tola (13.85%), Anchar (8.12%), Chinaksen (5.4%), Gemechis (5.63%), and Chiro (1.25%). There was also a significant difference in the seroprevalence of CCPP between different age groups with (χ2 = 4.8459; p = 0.028), in that adult goats had a higher prevalence (10.84%) compared to young goats (5.86%). Similarly, the seroprevalence of CCPP was significantly different between agro-ecological zones (χ2 =33.2990; p < 0.001), in that goats in the lowlands (16.4%) had higher seroprevalence than those in the midland (5.2%) agro-ecology. Numerically, higher seroprevalence was recorded in female goats (10.1%; 95% CI = 8.1-12.4) than in males (7.7%; 95% CI = 4.06-13.13), but no statistically significant difference was observed among the sex groups (χ2 = 0.7997; p = 0.371). Hence, agro-ecology based appropriate control measures including regular investigation and vaccination should be implemented to alleviate the situation.