A Retrospective Analysis of Animal Bite Victims Suspected for Rabies Exposure Cases Admitted to Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital from 2013 to 2018 Years
Keywords: Animal bite, Case records, Human rabies, Interventions, Risk factors
AbstractRabies is a viral disease that affects all warm-blooded animals including humans. The disease is transmitted from affected animals to susceptible animals and humans through animal bites. A retrospective study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital to assess the status of human rabies suspected cases and identify risk factors for the animal bite from clinical case records. A total of 1023 animal bite victims suspected of exposure to rabies were admitted to the hospital for the purpose of post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment from September 2012 to August 2018. Among the admitted cases, seventy-six victims (7.4%) were reported as fatal. All suspected victims were not received post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment (p<0.05). Results of suspected rabies spatial distribution identified that most of the cases were referral from other districts such as Boloso Bombe and Boloso Sore districts. 79.6% of the victims were exposed to bites and scratches by dogs. Among the victims, children younger than 15 years were highly affected (39.1%), whereas those older than 36 years were the least affected. Males were relatively more vulnerable victims (58.4%) compared to female. Relatively, limbs were bitten at higher proportion (20.1%) compared to other parts of the body. The highest number of animal bite victims 190 (18.6%) were recorded from September 2015 to August 2016. Most animal bite cases 130 (12.7%) were recorded during the month of September, whereas the lowest 56 (5.5%) were recorded during the month of February. In conclusion, rabies was found to be well established disease in the study area, and is at the level that can be considered as a problem that posse higher magnitude of public health risk. It is recommended that prevention and controlling strategies should be implement against rabies disease by human and animal health sectors in the Zone.