East African Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: windowtext;">EAJHBS is an official scholarly communication of the College of Health and Medical Sciences that shows the case of research work by health professionals anywhere in the world. It’s headquarter is located at the College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University. Ethiopia. </span></p> Haramaya University, Colllege of Health and Medical Sceince en-US East African Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Women’s Contraceptive Use, Fertility Intention, and Associated Factors: Evidence from Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Eastern Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/648 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Improving maternal health condition is a critical global health concern. But in 2012, 222 million women who want to avoid pregnancy are not using contraceptives in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to assess women’s contraceptive use and fertility intention, and the associated factors in eastern Ethiopia.<strong> Methods:</strong> Community based survey was conducted among 2,072 women (15-49 years) in Harar Health Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in eastern Ethiopia. Data were gathered by trained data collectors, and entered into computer based software and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for analysis. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were carried out. A statistical association was declared using adjusted odds ratio at 95% confidence interval and p values &lt;0.05.<strong> Results:</strong> Almost all the women (99.5%, n=2,061) have ever heard about family planning methods. Health professionals (62.1%, n=1286) were the main source of information about the family planning methods. The women who had ever used contraceptive and who were using currently (during study period) were 89.4% (1,853) and 73.0% (n=1512), respectively. Injectable method (52.3%) was the most popular method, followed by pills (24.8%). Implanon, Intrauterine contraceptive device and surgical methods were used 15.5%, 2.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Forty seven percent of the women had no desire to have a baby in the next two years. The women’s age ranged 30-39 years (AOR =0.49; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.64), women’s age ranged from 40-49 years (AOR=0.25; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.35), women unable to unable to read and write (AOR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.84), women who had &gt;2 alive children (AOR=0.28; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.57) had significant association with their contraceptive use. Also, women’s age ranged 30-39 years (AOR=0 .68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.85), women’s age ranged from 40-49 years (AOR=0.24; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.32), women who had no alive children (AOR=5.42; 95% CI: 1.59, 18.46) and had &lt;2 alive children (AOR=2.42; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.82) were significantly associated with women’s fertility intention. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The women’s contraceptive use and an intention not to have a baby were high compared with 2016 EDHS report of Harari Regional State. The study participants’ age, educational status, and having alive children were the factors associated with their contraceptive use and fertility intention. Therefore, we recommend that concerned stakeholders focus on the associated factors to address the contraceptive use and realize the women’s fertility intention.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Contraceptive Use, Fertility Intention, Associated factors, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia</em></p> Agumasie Semahegn Kwasi Torpey Abubakar Manu Nega Assefa Augustine Ankomah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-20 2018-11-20 2 2 1 10 Research and Publication Experiences of College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, from January 2008-April 2018 https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/640 <p><strong>Background:</strong> College of Health and Medical Sciences (CHMS), Haramaya University (HU), has been undertaking various research activities following thematic approaches. So far, there are no organized documents that clearly show the trend or pattern of research and publication works of the college. This review is, therefore, aimed to identifying, organizing and synthesizing the research and publication experiences of the college, so as to assist in the analysis of gaps from January 2008-April 2018. <strong>Methods:</strong> Record reviews were done to identify the researches of Master and PhD students. Similarly, institutional (HU) repository searches were undertaken to retrieve staff research grants. Published and unpublished literature search was accomplished online from different databases or interfaces. In addition, few publications were retrieved by direct contact of staff/departments and search from HU website. Data were synthesized by considering subthemes or topics, year initiated or published, publishing journals, and designs of the works. Descriptive statistics were employed to present the data in tables and figures. <strong>Results:</strong> This review identified 588 Master, 24 PhD, 125 staff grant researches and 335 publications. Main topics addressed by the staff research (30.4%) and published articles (20.6%) were areas of infectious diseases. Most of the staff research (90.4%) and published articles (80.6%) had applied cross sectional designs. Overall, the research developments of the college has shown linear increased trends over years with little fluctuations during certain periods. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Despite the little fluctuations, the research and publication experiences of the college have been almost constantly rising over the last ten years. Infectious diseases were the key areas studied and cross sectional design was the common method applied. With the studies, important public and clinical health findings were identified. Therefore, decision and policymakers are advised to consult these researches and researchers are recommended to focus on stronger methodologies that includes unaddressed aspects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Research; Publication; College of Health and Medical Sciences; Haramaya University</em></p> Dumessa Edessa Mekonnen Sisay Yadeta Dessie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-20 2018-11-20 2 2 11 22 Food Insecurity and Associated Factors among Adult HIV Positives Attending Antiretroviral Therapy in Public Health Facilities of Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/646 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Food insecurity is prevalent among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa countries. There, more than half of HIV- infected individuals are food insecured. Even though some studies have been done on the nutritional status of HIV patients, few have addressed the magnitude of food insecurity and the associated factors among adults on antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited countries like Ethiopia. Therefore, the main aims of this study is assess the magnitude of food insecurity and the associated factors among adults on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Public Health facilities in Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia. <strong>Methods:</strong> An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 09 to February 09, 2018 on 415 adult HIV positives attending antiretroviral treatment at randomly selected five public health facilities in Kembata Tembaro Zone. The study subjects were selected from each facility proportionally and by simple random sampling technique. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were made to identify the independent factors associated with the households’ food insecurity. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to measure the strength of association. Level of statistical significance was declared at p-value &lt; 0.05. <strong>Results:</strong> The magnitude of food insecurity was 57.3% (52.4-62.1), of which 13.3%, 26.6% and 17.4% mild, moderate were and severely food insecured respectively. Monthly income &lt;1000 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) (AOR=10.88; 95% CI:6.6, 18), presence of opportunistic infections (OIs) (AOR=2.16; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.5), presence of another family member with HIV (AOR=2.33; 95% CI:1.4, 3.86), absence of support from organization (AOR=2.36; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.2) and clinical stage III and IV (AOR =2.99; 95% CI:1.44, 6.2) were factors associated with food insecurity. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Food insecurity is a significant problem among HIV positives. These result could call multi-sectoral collaboration to alleviate the problem among ART attendants, strengthen screening and treating patients for opportunistic infections (OIs) and also integrate ART programs with food security intervention. <br><br></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Food Insecurity, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, People Living with HIV, ART, Ethiopia</em></p> Melese Markos Gudina Egata Yadeta Dessie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-20 2018-11-20 2 2 23 34 Household Salt Iodine Level and Associated Factors in Dire Dawa City Administration, Eastern Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/649 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Iodine is the commonest, but not the only, cause for the low level of thyroid hormones. Salt iodization is the preferred strategy to control this Deficiency Disorder. However, there is limited information on the level of iodine on household salt and the associated factors in Dire Dawa city administration. The main aim of this study was to assess the level of iodine in the household salt and associated factors in Dire Dawa City Aadministration. <strong>Methods:</strong> Community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dire Dawa City Administration among randomly selected 402 households. The level of iodine was determined by using rapid test kit and iodometric titration test. Data were collected by structured questionnaire using face to face interview on socio-demographic, economic dietary diversity, salt storage and utilization. The data were entered in to EpiData Version 3.1 and exported to SPSS Version 20.0 for analysis. All the variables that had P&lt;0.25 with outcome variable in the bivariate analysis were included in the multivariate regression model, and P-value ≤ 0.05 was declared as statistically significant. <strong>Results:</strong> Inadequate amount of iodized salt (&lt;15 parts per million) was found among 51% of the households and 49.5% of the households’ salt had inadequate (less than 20 mg/kg) iodine concentration using Iodometric titration test. Using non-packed salt (AOR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.73), knowledge about the importance of iodized salt (AOR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.05-4.90), storing the salt for more than two months (AOR=2.1;5% CI: 1.14-4.61), purchasing salt from open market (AOR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5) and retail shop (AOR=1.6;95% CI:1.1-5.1), and divorced, widowed and separated (AOR=2.93; 95% CI: 1.56-6.59) were significantly associated with the availability of inadequate iodized salt at the households. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> In the study area, many of the households did not have access to adequately iodized salt at the household level. Hence, the concerned stakeholders should sensitize the community about the importance of iodized salt and its proper handling at the household level.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Iodometric Titration, Rapid Test, Iodine, Dire Dawa</em></p> Goytom Ftwi Bezatu Mengistie Meyrema Abdo Kedir Teji Roba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-20 2018-11-20 2 2 35 44 Psychotropic Medication Non-Adherence among Psychiatric Patients at Two Hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia https://haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/650 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Major psychiatric disorders have significant contributions to the global burden of disease. The pharmacological management of major psychiatric disorders is mainly challenged by patients’ lack of adherence to their medication. Although it may be well studied in the developed world, it is not well documented in less developed countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychotropic medication non-adherence and its associated factors among psychiatric patients at two selected hospitals in eastern Ethiopia. <strong>Methods:</strong> A hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital and Dil Chora Hospital from May to June, 2015. A systematic sampling method was applied to recruit 660 adult patients (18 years and older) with major psychiatric disorders at two selected hospitals in the eastern Ethiopia. The patients’ psychotropic medication non-adherence, attitude towards medication, perceived stigma and social support were assessed using adapted tools. Collected data were entered into EpiData version 3.5.3 and then exported to Statistical Package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis were carried out. Statistical association was declared using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) at 95% confidence interval (CI) and p&lt; 0.05.<strong> Results:</strong> The prevalence of psychotropic medication non-adherence was 61.2% (95% CI: 57.3-65.0%). Being female (AOR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.4-3.8); taking low potency typical antipsychotic with antidepressants concomitantly (AOR=2.7; 95% CI:1.0-6.9); being on treatment from 6 to 24 months (AOR=2.3; 95% CI:1.4,3.8); more than 24 months (AOR=2.5; 95% CI:1.5-4.1); substance use (AOR=2.6; 95% CI;1.7-4.0); perceived stigma (AOR=2.2; 95% CI:1.53.1); patient’s poor attitude towards the medication (AOR=3.0; 95%CI:1.8-5.1), and poor social support (AOR=1.8; 95%CI:1.3-2.7) were the factors associated with psychotropic medications non-adherence. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> About two-third of the major psychiatric patients were non-adherent to their psychotropic medication. The non-adherence was significantly associated with being female, low potency treatment and concurrently ill, long treatment duration, substance use, perceived stigma, poor attitude towards medications and lack of social support. Therefore, concerned stakeholders should focus on the associated factors in order to improve adherence to psychotropic medication.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Psychotropic medication non-adherence, Major psychiatric disorders, Ethiopia</em></p> Mulugeta Nega Mekdes Demissie Agumasie Semahegn Gezahegn Tesfaye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-20 2018-11-20 2 2 45 54